Hong Kong Governor Bonham to British Minister Lord Grey, 1849

December 13, 1901

Hong Kong Governor Bonham to British Minister Lord Grey, 1849, Regarding Chinese Participation in the Colonial Government

Treaty between Koxinga and the Dutch Government 1662

December 13, 1901

Signed at Castle Zeelandia 1 February 1662

U.S. Senator Albert J. Beveridge speaks on the Philippine Question, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C., January 9, 1900

December 13, 1901

Senator Beveridge's speech on the Philippines reflects an era of American imperialism in the Pacific.

The White Man's Burden 1899

December 13, 1901

"The White Man's Burden" is a poem by the English poet Rudyard Kipling. It was originally published in the popular magazine McClure's in 1899. It was a response to the U.S. taking over the Philippines after the Spanish-American War. Although Kipling's poem mixed exhortation to empire with sober warnings of the costs involved, imperialists within the United States understood the phrase "white man's burden" as a characterization for imperialism that justified the policy as a noble enterprise.

John Hay to Andrew White, "First 'Open Door' Note, Sept. 6, 1899

December 13, 1901

Secretary John Hay wrote versions of this note to each of the major powers (Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Russia, and Japan).

Treaty of Tianjin (Tien-tsin), 1858

December 13, 1901

Treaty between the United States of America and the Empire of China.