For decades, European countries assumed that China is a benign force in international relations.
Treaty between Koxinga and the Dutch Government 1662
Treaty made and agreed upon; from the one side, by His Highness the LORD TEIBINGH TSIANTE TEYSIANCON KOXIN, who has besieged Castle Zeelandia on Formosa since 1st May 1661 up till this 1st day of February 1662; and from the other side, as representing the Dutch Government, by the Governor of the said Castle, FREDERIK COYETT, and his Council, consisting of the undernoted eighteen Articles:
All hostilities committed on either side to be forgotten.
Castle Zeelandia, with its outworks, artillery, remaining war materiel, merchandise, money, and other properties belonging to the Honourable Company, to be surrendered to LORD KOXINGA.
Rice, bread, wine, arack, meat, pork, oil, vinegar, ropes, canvas, pitch, tar, anchors, gunpowder, bullets, and linen, with such other articles as may be required by the besieged during their voyage to Batavia, to be taken aboard the Company's ships in keeping with instructions from the before-mentioned Governor and Council.
All private movable property inside the Castle or elsewhere belonging to officers of the Dutch Government, shall first be inspected by LORD KOXINGA's delegates, and then placed on board the said ships.
In addition to these goods, each of the twenty-eight Councillors shall be permitted to take with them two hundred rijksdaalders, and twenty chosen civilians an aggregate sum of one thousand rijksdaalders.
After inspection, the Dutch soldiers may come forth with flying banners, burning fusees, loaded rifles, and beating drums, marching thus for embarkation under command of the Governor.
The names of all Chinese debtors or lease-holder in Formosa, with particulars of claims against them, shall be copied out of the company's books, and handed to LORD KOXINGA.
All the Government archives may be taken to Batavia.
Every servant of the Company, now imprisoned by the Chinese in Formosa, shall be liberated within eight or ten days, and those who are in China, as soon as possible. Servants of the Company who are not imprisoned in Formosa shall be granted a free pass to reach the Company's ships in safety.
The said LORD KOXINGA shall now return to the Company the four captured boats, with all their accessories.
He shall also provide a sufficient number of vessels to take the Honourable Company's people and goods to their ships.
Vegetables, flesh-meat, and whatever else may be necessary to sustain the Company's people during their stay, shall daily be provided by His Highness's subjects at a reasonable price.
So long as the Honourable Company's people remain on land before embarkation, no soldier or other subject of LORD KOXINGA shall be permitted to enter the Castle (unless...on service for the Company), to approach the outworks nearer than the gabions, or to proceed further than the palisades erected by order of His Highness.
No other than a white flag shall float from the Castle until the Honourable Company's people have marched out.
Those who guard the stores shall remain in the Castle two or three days after the other people and goods have been taken on board, and thereafter they shall proceed themselves to the vessels.
As soon as this agreement is signed, sealed, and sworn to on both sides, each according to his country's customs, LORD KOXINGA shall deliver to one of the Dutch ships two hostages, viz. the Mandarin or Captain Moor Ongkun and Pimpan Jamoosje of the political Council. On the other side, and as representing the Company, LORD KOXINGA shall receive custody of Mr. Jan Oetgens van Waveren, an official second in rank to the Governor, and Mr. David Harthouwer, also a member of the Formosan Council. Each of these hostages shall remain in a previously fixed place until everything has been carried out in accordance with the terms of this contract.
Chinese prisoners at present in the Castle or on the Company's ships shall be exchanged for any of our people who have been seized by the subjects of LORD KOXINGA.
All misunderstandings, and every important matter overlooked in this Agreement, shall immediately be dealt with to the satisfaction of both parties, upon notice having been given on either side.
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Tensions evident in the recent European Union-China virtual summit reflect the increasing skepticism in Europe toward China and the worries over Ukraine and economic ties as well as human rights and environmental issues.