Zhao offers a quick history of China's foreign policy since 1949 and then offers a provocative assessment of it today.
China and Russia Issue a Joint Statement, Declaring the Trend of the Boundary Line between the Two Countries Has Been Completely Determined, October 14, 2004
At the invitation of President Hu Jintao of the People's Republic of China, President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin of the Russian Federation paid a state visit to China from October 14 to 16, 2004.
The two heads of state hold that the celebration of the 55th anniversary of the establishment of China-Russia diplomatic ties is of special significance. The two sides hold comprehensive and in-depth discussions on the status quo and prospects of China-Russia relations, indicating that whatever changes take place in the international situation, to deepen China-Russia strategic cooperative partnership is the priority of the foreign policies of both countries. This serves the fundamental interests of the two countries and peoples and is conducive to safeguarding and promoting regional and world peace, stability and economic development. Based on the sincerer aspiration of continuing pushing for and strengthening bilateral cooperation and exchanges in various fields and in order to open up a new prospect for China-Russia relations, the two heads of state make a statement as follows.
After more than a decade of development, China-Russia relations have reached an unprecedented high level. The Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation signed on July 16, 2001 is an important milestone in the development process of bilateral ties, as well as a programmatic document guiding the development of China-Russia ties. The two sides will abide by the principles and spirit defined in the Treaty and continue taking necessary measures to implement the Treaty and all other cooperation documents reached between the two sides in an all-round manner, so as to continuously enrich China-Russia strategic cooperative partnership with new content. The two sides stress that to strengthen political mutual trust, deepen economic cooperation, expand cooperation in humanities and social exchanges and conduct closer coordination and cooperation in international affairs is important content of China-Russia strategic cooperative partnership.
The two sides approve the Outline on Implementing the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation (2005-2008), holding that the Outline is of great realistic significance to implementing the above-mentioned Treaty by the two countries in the next few years, deepening and expanding cooperation in various fields and promoting continuous development of China-Russia strategic cooperative partnership.
The two sides reach consensus on setting the year 2006 as the "Russian Year" in China and 2007 the "Chinese Year" in Russia.
Both sides reaffirm that they will continue offering support to each other on significant issues involving the national unity, sovereignty and territorial integrity. Russia reiterates that it will as always adhere to the principled stance on the Taiwan and Tibet issues set forth in the Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation signed on July 16, 2001 and all the other bilateral political documents signed previously, namely acknowledging there is but one China in the world, the government of the People's Republic of China is the sole legal government representing China and Taiwan is an inalienable part of China. Russia opposes "Taiwan independence" in any form, never accepts "two Chinas and one China, one Taiwan", opposes Taiwan's entry into the United Nations (UN) and other international organizations only sovereign states can participate in and refrains from selling weapons to Taiwan. Russia recognizes Tibet is an inseparable part of China. China supports all Russia's efforts in safeguarding national unity and combating the terrorist and separatist forces in Chechnya. The two sides indicate that exchanges of visits between heads of states, parliament speakers and prime ministers of the two countries and the meetings of sub-committees within the framework of the prime ministers' regular meeting mechanism have constituted the basic framework of bilateral cooperation. This is beneficial for the two sides to coordinate their stances on significant bilateral and international issues in time, conduct closer collaboration and respond to the challenges of the era. The two sides would like to continue efforts to improve and develop all the cooperation mechanisms, in a bid to ensure the continuous development of bilateral cooperation in politics, economy, science, technology, humanities and international affairs. The two sides hold that the launch of the high-level security consultation mechanism by the two countries as soon as possible is of great significance.
Both sides note that the agreement reached between the two countries on the trend of the boundary line in two sections of the China-Russia border area that were not agreed upon is a balanced and rational plan for the political win-win situation. The Complementary Agreement between the People's Republic of the China and the Russian Federation on the Eastern Section of the China-Russia Boundary signed this time and the two boundary agreements signed prior to that mark the complete identification of the trend of the over 4,300 km-long China-Russia border line. This result is worth cherishing and fully affirming. The resolution of the China-Russia boundary issue is a reliable guarantee for generations of friendship and good-neighborly cooperation between the two peoples, an important contribution to peace and stability of the Asia-Pacific region and the whole world and a successful model for all the countries in the world to address border disputes. The boundary agreement and other border-related agreements between the two countries provide new opportunities for the two sides to take joint actions in environmental protection, rational use of natural resources, shipping, economic cooperation, safeguarding security and stability in border areas and other specific areas, which will enrich the content of China-Russia strategic cooperative partnership. The experience of the two sides shows that peaceful dialogue, fairness, consultation on an equal basis, mutual understanding and accommodation and balance of interests are correct and effective approaches of addressing such complex and sensitive issues as the border one.
Both sides stress that to deepen China-Russia economic and trade cooperation including that in energy resources and investment in an all-round manner is an important factor of consolidating and developing China-Russia strategic cooperative partnership. China-Russia economic and trade cooperation enjoys the good momentum for development and it is fully possible to realize the goal of US$20 billion in bilateral trade volume by the end of this year. But the potentials of economic cooperation between the two countries are far from being fully tapped. The two sides will jointly take effective measures to formulate long and medium-term plans on comprehensive cooperation, improve the mix of bilateral trade, expand trade in mechanical and electrical products, improve the forms and approaches of economic, trade and investment cooperation, give priority to implementing large-scale cooperation programs in various fields, promote substantial progress of bilateral cooperation in energy resources, expand cooperation in the peaceful use of nuclear energy and strengthen scientific and technological cooperation in aerospace, nuclear energy and other energy resources, power, new materials, chemical industry, biology, communications, IT and other priority development areas.
Both sides hold that the establishment of China-Russia Entrepreneurs' Council is of great significance to promoting China-Russia economic and trade cooperation, and they express welcome to the convening of the first meeting of China-Russia Entrepreneurs' Council within the framework of the China-Russia Committee on Friendship, Peace and Development. China resolutely supports Russia to accede to the World Trade Organization (WTO) as soon as possible. With their joint efforts, the two sides have smoothly concluded the China-Russia bilateral market access negotiation on Russia's accession to the WTO, signed related documents and declared the mutual recognition of the other side's full market economy status. The two sides hold that this is an important expression of China-Russia strategic cooperative partnership and they would like to strengthen cooperation within the WTO based on the principle of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit after Russia's accession to this organization.
The two sides earnestly review the UN's capacity and advantages in addressing significant international and regional issues, advocate they should stick to multilateralism and respect, give a play to and strengthen the roles of the UN and its Security Council, and hold that the UN's leading role is irreplaceable in safeguarding world peace and stability, effectively responding to the challenges and threats of the present era, promoting the establishment of a fair and rational world order and ensuring the development of all the countries on an equal basis. The two sides stress that the purposes and principles stipulated in the UN Charter still remain the basic norms that must be followed in dealing with international affairs.
Both sides hold that it is urgently needed to compose international disputes under the chairing of the UN and resolve crisis on the basis of universally recognized principles of international law. Any coercive action should only be taken with the approval of the UN Security Council and enforced under its supervision. The two sides acknowledge that to strengthen its capacity in responding to threats and challenges, enhance its representation and upgrade its working efficiency, it's necessary to properly reform the UN Security Council. The two sides indicate they stand ready to work along with other countries in making relentless efforts to establish a world of peace, development and harmony and realize a fair and rational international political and economic new order.
Both sides hold discussions on the status quo and prospects of combating international terrorism and note that terrorism, separatism and extremism pose grave threats to sovereign states' security as well as world peace and stability, indicating they will continue conducting cooperation in an all-round manner within the framework of related regional organizations and international institutions based on bilateral and multilateral collaboration. The two sides hold that the international community must unite to persistently and relentlessly fight against terrorism in all forms.
Both sides hold that they should strengthen global counter-terrorism cooperation with the UN as a platform and reformulate a whole set of strategies in response to terrorism. The two sides stress that only with the guidance of the UN, based on international law, in accordance with related resolutions of the UN and under close cooperation with the main coordinating center, the Counter-Terrorism Committee of the UN Security Council, can the above-mentioned objectives be comprehensively fulfilled. The two sides will push the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and the Counter-Terrorism Committee of the UN Security Council to continue their constructive collaboration on the counter-terrorism issue.
Both sides insist that there be no double standard in counter terrorism. The elimination of terrorism requires full cooperation of all the countries in the world. None of those who create terrorist incidents, directly or indirectly refuge or sponsor terrorists can get away from responsibility for the crimes. Both sides point out that poverty, backwardness, social unfairness, extremist ideas, conflicts and wars are all hotbeds of terrorism.
Both sides reaffirm that as part of international terrorism, the terrorist and separatist forces in Chechnya and the "East Turkistan" should be the targets for the international fight against terrorism. The two sides will take targeted, necessary and pragmatic steps within bilateral and multilateral frameworks. China understands and firmly supports all measures taken by Russia to resume the constitutional order of the Republic of Chechnya and to fight against terrorism. Russia firmly supports all measures taken by China to fight against the terrorist and separatist forces in "East Turkistan" and to eliminate terrorist jeopardy.
The strategic and cooperative partnership between China and Russia and the collaboration between the two countries in the United Nations (UN), Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and other international organizations have contributed significantly to safeguarding world peace and security. Such worldly ideas as fairness and rationality, equality and reciprocity as well as mutual respect have been embodied throughout the activities of the representative regional organization of SCO.
Both sides believe that the purposes and principles of the SCO are compliant with the development trend of the time and the actual situation of the region. The activities of the organization help consolidate regional security and stability and promote the common development of countries in the region. It is a priority for Chinese and Russian foreign policies to push forward the development of the SCO which both sides regard as an important means to build up peace, security and cooperation on the Eurasian Continent, especially in Central Asia as well as a basic factor to establish a multilateral world pattern based on the international law in the future.
Both sides reiterate that they will work together to prevent any form of space armament and call on all countries to support the initiative of China and Russia to covenant relevant international legal documents through negotiations.
Both sides stress that the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their carriers as well as relevant materials constitute a serious threat to international peace and security. The two sides believe that further coordination is needed to address the threat. To this end, the two sides welcome the adoption of Resolution 1540 by the UN Security Council that as they deem is a very important step to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their carriers. Both sides agree to strictly implement the resolution and to enhance UN's role in the non-proliferation area.
Both sides prioritize the strengthening of international nuclear non-proliferation mechanism, noting that the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons signed on July 1, 1968 is an important pillar for this mechanism and also a significant factor to maintain world peace and security. The two sides believe that it is very important to hold the 2005 Review Conference to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Considering the significance of the Treaty on the Comprehensive Ban of Nuclear Testing signed on September 24, 1996 on nuclear disarmament and the enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation mechanism, both sides propose the early entry into force of the treaty. Both sides give top priority to the coordination of international efforts to eliminate terrorist hazards. Both sides think special attention should be given to the protection of nuclear materials and the prevention of illegitimate transfer of nuclear materials. Both sides will take measures to develop coordination within the framework of the multilateral mechanism on the control of nuclear export.
To establish a nuclear free area is one of the steps to ensure stability in Asia and the world at large. Both sides fully support the establishment of a nuclear free area, especially in Central Asia.
Both sides support the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, deeming that the nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula must be resolved through dialogue at an early date and that the six-party talks are an effective mechanism to realize the objective. Both sides positively appraise the achievements made during the third round of six-party talks which was held in June 2004.
Both sides reaffirm that they will continue to be committed to the six-party talks and trying to seek a solution acceptable to all parties involved. Both sides stress that the ultimate goal is to ensure the nuclear free status of the Korean Peninsula, maintain lasting peace, stability and security on the Korean Peninsula and in the whole region and boost common development.
Both sides are concerned about the continuous escalation of the violent incidents in Iraq, stressing that the local situation should be stabilized through internal dialogue with a particular focus on the national consensus over major issues, such as the future reconstruction of the country, which as they believe helps to build up a new and democratic Iraq. Both sides propose to carefully implement Resolution 1546 by the UN Security Council, especially the schedule for political process in the resolution. Both sides emphasize to hold international conferences on the Iraqi issue will inject new vitality to local reconstruction efforts. Both sides consider it necessary to minimize the damage of the Iraqi War to international relations through joint efforts in a bid to safeguard the interest of the whole international community.
Both sides support a lasting, fair and comprehensive solution to the conflicts between the Arabic states and Israel on the basis of relevant resolutions adopted by the UN Security Council. Both sides indicate the "roadmap" plan formulated by the four-party mechanism remains the best scheme to realize the co-existence of Israel and Palestine and to ensure both of them to maintain peace and security.
Both sides suggest that Afghanistan be built into a democratic and prosperous sovereign state with no terrorism, no drugs and in harmony with the whole international community. The first and foremost task is to ensure the reliable security of the region and the international community should provide broad assistance to the reconstruction of Afghanistan with the leadership of the UN. The work should be done in line with the resolution by the UN Security Council and under the consistent supervision of the UN Security Council. Both sides will continue to make efforts to respond to the threat of drug proliferation in Afghanistan, including the participation of international efforts to build a peripheral anti-drug security zone around the country.
Both sides welcome the move toward full dialogue between India and Pakistan, considering it conducive to the development of bilateral relations in various fields, the interests of both countries and the peace and stability in South Asia to settle differences through peaceful means, to take measures to enhance trust, to create new roads and to develop cooperation in sports, culture and other areas between India and Pakistan.
Both sides will enhance dialogue, coordinate actions and safeguard peace, stability and prosperity in the Asia Pacific region. Both sides are willing to conduct close bilateral or multilateral collaboration with other countries and regional forums.
Both sides will be committed to the promotion of an integrated security cooperation system in the Asia Pacific region with all participants enjoying equal rights, which will help maintain global stability. Both sides emphasize that the SCO initiative on the gradual establishment of a partnership network with multi-party participation in the Asia Pacific region is of realistic significance. Both sides are willing to take joint and active actions to carry out the initiative.
Both sides consider the regional forum of Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) the major official channel for multilateral security dialogue and cooperation in the Asia Pacific region at present. Over the past ten years or more, the forum has played an important role in promoting mutual understanding, enhancing mutual trust and boosting regional security dialogue and cooperation. Both sides would like to continue to enhance coordination and cooperation so as to contribute to the development of the ASEAN regional forum and regional stability and security.
The Chinese side reiterates its support for Russia's participation in multilateral dialogue and cooperation in the region. China understands and supports Russia to conduct regional dialogues with the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), Asian Cooperation Dialogue, "10+3", China-Japan-Korea Cooperation as well as Russia's wishes to establish relations with these cooperation mechanisms.
President of the People's Republic of China
President of the Russian Federation
Vladimir V. Putin
Beijing, October 14, 2004
Original source: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjdt/2649/t165266.htm
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The Dragon Roars Back – Mao, Deng and Xi Jinping and China’s evolving relations with the world - Zhao Suisheng 赵穗生, University of Denver
Join us for a book talk with Suisheng Zhao on how Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, and Xi Jinping each conceived and executed radically different approaches to China's relations with others.