China's National Defense in 2008
Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China
January 2009, Beijing
The year 2008 was an extraordinary one in the history of the People's Republic of China (PRC). In that year China overcame a devastating earthquake, with the epicenter in Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province; successfully hosted the 29th Olympic Games and Paralympics in Beijing; and greeted the 30th anniversary of the adoption of reform and opening-up policies.
Historic changes have taken place in the relations between contemporary China and the rest of the world. The Chinese economy has become an important part of the world economy, China has become an important member of the international system, and the future and destiny of China have been increasingly closely connected with the international community. China cannot develop in isolation from the rest of the world, nor can the world enjoy prosperity and stability without China.
Starting from this new historical turning point, China is unswervingly taking the road of peaceful development, unswervingly carrying out its policies of reform and opening-up and socialist modernization, unswervingly pursuing an independent foreign policy of peace and a national defense policy solely aimed at protecting its territory and people, and endeavoring to build, together with other countries, a harmonious world of enduring peace and common prosperity.
China adheres to taking the Scientific Outlook on Development as an important guiding principle for national defense and armed forces building; is actively adapting itself to new trends in world military development, taking it as its fundamental purpose to safeguard national sovereignty, security and development, taking reform and innovation as its fundamental driving force, and advancing the modernization of its national defense and armed forces from a higher starting point.
With the advent of the new century, the world is undergoing tremendous changes and adjustments. Peace and development remain the principal themes of the times, and the pursuit of peace, development and cooperation has become an irresistible trend of the times. However, global challenges are on the increase, and new security threats keep emerging.
Economic globalization and world multi-polarization are gaining momentum. The progress toward industrialization and informationization throughout the globe is accelerating and economic cooperation is in full swing, leading to increasing economic interdependence, inter-connectivity and interactivity among countries. The rise and decline of international strategic forces is quickening, major powers are stepping up their efforts to cooperate with each other and draw on each other's strengths. They continue to compete with and hold each other in check, and groups of new emerging developing powers are arising. Therefore, a profound readjustment is brewing in the international system. In addition, factors conducive to maintaining peace and containing war are on the rise, and the common interests of countries in the security field have increased, and their willingness to cooperate is enhanced, thereby keeping low the risk of worldwide, all-out and large-scale wars for a relatively long period of time.
World peace and development are faced with multiple difficulties and challenges. Struggles for strategic resources, strategic locations and strategic dominance have intensified. Meanwhile, hegemonism and power politics still exist, regional turmoil keeps spilling over, hot-spot issues are increasing, and local conflicts and wars keep emerging. The impact of the financial crisis triggered by the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis is snowballing. In the aspect of world economic development, issues such as energy and food are becoming more serious, highlighting deep-seated contradictions. Economic risks are manifesting a more interconnected, systematic and global nature. Issues such as terrorism, environmental disasters, climate change, serious epidemics, transnational crime and pirates are becoming increasingly prominent.
The influence of military security factors on international relations is mounting. Driven by competition in overall national strength and the development of science and technology, international military competition is becoming increasingly intense, and the worldwide revolution in military affairs (RMA) is reaching a new stage of development. Some major powers are realigning their security and military strategies, increasing their defense investment, speeding up the transformation of armed forces, and developing advanced military technology, weapons and equipment. Strategic nuclear forces, military astronautics, missile defense systems, and global and battlefield reconnaissance and surveillance have become top priorities in their efforts to strengthen armed forces. Some developing countries are also actively seeking to acquire advanced weapons and equipment to increase their military power. All countries are attaching more importance to supporting diplomatic struggles with military means. As a result, arms races in some regions are heating up, posing grave challenges to the international arms control and nonproliferation regime.
The Asia-Pacific security situation is stable on the whole. The regional economy is brimming with vigor, mechanisms for regional and sub-regional economic and security cooperation maintain their development momentum, and it has become the policy orientation of all countries to settle differences and hotspot issues peacefully through dialogue. The member states of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) have signed the Treaty on Long-Term Good-Neighborly Relations, Friendship and Cooperation, and practical cooperation has made progress in such fields as security and economy. The conclusion of the ASEAN Charter has enabled a new step to be taken toward ASEAN integration. Remarkable achievements have been made in cooperation between China and ASEAN, as well as between ASEAN and China, Japan and the Republic of Korea. Cooperation within the framework of the East Asia Summit (EAS) and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) continues to make progress. The Six-Party Talks on the Korean nuclear issue have scored successive achievements, and the tension in Northeast Asia is much released.
However, there still exist many factors of uncertainty in Asia-Pacific security. The drastic fluctuations in the world economy impact heavily on regional economic development, and political turbulence persists in some countries undergoing economic and social transition. Ethnic and religious discords, and conflicting claims over territorial and maritime rights and interests remain serious, regional hotspots are complex. At the same time, the U.S. has increased its strategic attention to and input in the Asia-Pacific region, further consolidating its military alliances, adjusting its military deployment and enhancing its military capabilities. In addition, terrorist, separatist and extremist forces are running rampant, and non-traditional security issues such as serious natural disasters crop up frequently. The mechanisms for security cooperation between countries and regions are yet to be enhanced, and the capability for coping with regional security threats in a coordinated way has to be improved.
China's security situation has improved steadily. The achievements made in China's modernization drive have drawn worldwide attention. China's overall national strength has increased substantially, its people's living standards have kept improving, the society remains stable and unified, and the capability for upholding national security has been further enhanced. The attempts of the separatist forces for "Taiwan independence" to seek "de jure Taiwan independence" have been thwarted, and the situation across the Taiwan Straits has taken a significantly positive turn. The two sides have resumed and made progress in consultations on the common political basis of the "1992 Consensus," and consequently cross-Straits relations have improved. Meanwhile, China has made steady progress in its relations with the developed countries, strengthened in all respects the good-neighborly friendship with its neighboring countries, and kept deepening its traditional friendship with the developing countries. China is playing an active and constructive role in multilateral affairs, thus notably elevating its international position and influence.
China is still confronted with long-term, complicated, and diverse security threats and challenges. Issues of existence security and development security, traditional security threats and non-traditional security threats, and domestic security and international security are interwoven and interactive. China is faced with the superiority of the developed countries in economy, science and technology, as well as military affairs. It also faces strategic maneuvers and containment from the outside while having to face disruption and sabotage by separatist and hostile forces from the inside. Being in a stage of economic and social transition, China is encountering many new circumstances and new issues in maintaining social stability. Separatist forces working for "Taiwan independence," "East Turkistan independence" and "Tibet independence" pose threats to China's unity and security. Damages caused by non-traditional security threats like terrorism, natural disasters, economic insecurity, and information insecurity are on the rise. Impact of uncertainties and destabilizing factors in China's outside security environment on national security and development is growing. In particular, the United States continues to sell arms to Taiwan in violation of the principles established in the three Sino-US joint communiques, causing serious harm to Sino-US relations as well as peace and stability across the Taiwan Straits.
In the face of unprecedented opportunities and challenges, China will hold high the banner of peace, development and cooperation, persist in taking the road of peaceful development, pursue the opening-up strategy of mutual benefit, and promote the building of a harmonious world with enduring peace and common prosperity; and it will persist in implementing the Scientific Outlook on Development in a bid to achieve integration of development with security, persist in giving due consideration to both traditional and non-traditional security issues, enhancing national strategic capabilities, and perfecting the national emergency management system. At the same time, it will persist in pursuing the new security concept featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination, and advocating the settlement of international disputes and hotspot issues by peaceful means. It will encourage the advancement of security dialogues and cooperation with other countries, oppose the enlargement of military alliances, and acts of aggression and expansion. China will never seek hegemony or engage in military expansion now or in the future, no matter how developed it becomes.
China pursues a national defense policy which is purely defensive in nature. China places the protection of national sovereignty, security, territorial integrity, safeguarding of the interests of national development, and the interests of the Chinese people above all else. China endeavors to build a fortified national defense and strong military forces compatible with national security and development interests, and enrich the country and strengthen the military while building a moderately prosperous society in all aspects.
China's national defense policy for the new stage in the new century basically includes: upholding national security and unity, and ensuring the interests of national development; achieving the all-round, coordinated and sustainable development of China's national defense and armed forces; enhancing the performance of the armed forces with informationization as the major measuring criterion; implementing the military strategy of active defense; pursuing a self-defensive nuclear strategy; and fostering a security environment conducive to China's peaceful development.
According to the requirements of national security and the level of economic and social development, China pursues a three-step development strategy to modernize its national defense and armed forces step by step in a well-planned way. This strategic framework is defined as follows:
Promoting the informationization of China's national defense and armed forces. Taking informationization as the goal of modernization of its national defense and armed forces and in light of its national and military conditions, China actively pushes forward the RMA with Chinese characteristics. It has formulated in a scientific way strategic plans for national defense and armed forces building and strategies for the development of the services and arms, according to which it will lay a solid foundation by 2010, basically accomplish mechanization and make major progress in informationization by 2020, and by and large reach the goal of modernization of national defense and armed forces by the mid-21st century.
Overall planning of economic development and national defense building. Sticking to the principle of coordinated development of economy and national defense, China makes overall plans for the use of its national resources and strikes a balance between enriching the country and strengthening the military, so as to ensure that its strategy for national defense and armed forces building is compatible with its strategy for national development. It makes national defense building an organic part of its social and economic development, endeavors to establish scientific mechanisms for the coordinated development of economy and national defense, and thus provides rich resources and sustainable driving force for the modernization of its national defense and armed forces. In national defense building, China makes it a point to take into consideration the needs of economic and social development and insists on having military and civilian purposes compatible with and beneficial to each other, so as to achieve more social benefits in the use of national defense resources in peacetime.
Deepening the reform of national defense and armed forces. China is working to adjust and reform the organization, structure and policies of the armed forces, and will advance step by step the modernization of the organizational form and pattern of the armed forces in order to develop by 2020 a complete set of scientific modes of organization, institutions and ways of operation both with Chinese characteristics and in conformity with the laws governing the building of modern armed forces. China strives to adjust and reform the systems of defense-related industry of science and technology and the procurement of weapons and equipment, and enhance its capacity for independent innovation in R&D of weapons and equipment with better quality and cost-effectiveness. China endeavors to establish and improve the systems of weaponry and equipment research and manufacturing, military personnel training and logistical support that integrate military with civilian purposes and combine military efforts with civilian support. In addition, China makes an effort to establish and improve a national defense mobilization system that is centralized and unified, well structured, rapid in reaction, and authoritative and efficient.
Taking the road of leapfrog development. Persisting in taking mechanization as the foundation and informationization as focus, China is stepping up the composite development of mechanization and informationization. Persisting in strengthening the military by means of science and technology, China is working to develop new and high-tech weaponry and equipment, carry out the strategic project of training talented people, conduct military training in conditions of informationization, and build a modern logistics system in an all-round way, so as to change the mode of formation of war-fighting capabilities. Persisting in laying stress on priorities, China distinguishes between the primary and the secondary, and refrains from doing certain things, striving to achieve leapfrog development in key areas. China persists in building the armed forces through diligence and thrift, attaching importance to scientific management, in order to make the fullest use of its limited defense resources.
China implements a military strategy of active defense. Strategically, it adheres to the principle of featuring defensive operations, self-defense and striking and getting the better of the enemy only after the enemy has started an attack. In response to the new trends in world military developments and the requirements of the national security and development strategy, China has formulated a military strategic guideline of active defense for the new period.
This guideline aims at winning local wars in conditions of informationization. It takes into overall consideration the evolution of modern warfare and the major security threats facing China, and prepares for defensive operations under the most difficult and complex circum-stances. Meeting the requirements of confrontation between war systems in modern warfare and taking integrated joint operations as the basic approach, it is designed to bring the operational strengths of different services and arms into full play, combine offensive operations with defensive operations, give priority to the flexible application of strategies and tactics, seek advantages and avoid disadvantages, and make the best use of our strong points to attack the enemy's weak points. It endeavors to refine the command system for joint operations, the joint training system and the joint support system, optimize the structure and composition of forces, and speed up the building of a combat force structure suitable for winning local wars in conditions of informationization.
This guideline lays stress on deterring crises and wars. It works for close coordination between military struggle and political, diplomatic, economic, cultural and legal endeavors, strives to foster a favorable security environment, and takes the initiative to prevent and defuse crises, and deter conflicts and wars. It strictly adheres to a position of self-defense, exercises prudence in the use of force, seeks to effectively control war situations, and strives to reduce the risks and costs of war. It calls for the building of a lean and effective deterrent force and the flexible use of different means of deterrence. China remains committed to the policy of no first use of nuclear weapons, pursues a self-defensive nuclear strategy, and will never enter into a nuclear arms race with any other country.
This guideline focuses on enhancing the capabilities of the armed forces in countering various security threats and accomplishing diversified military tasks. With the focus of attention on performing the historical missions of the armed forces for the new stage in the new century and with raising the capability to win local wars in conditions of informationization at the core, it works to increase the country's capabilities to maintain maritime, space and electromagnetic space security and to carry out the tasks of counter-terrorism, stability maintenance, emergency rescue and international peacekeeping. It takes military operations other than war (MOOTW) as an important form of applying national military forces, and scientifically makes and executes plans for the development of MOOTW capabilities. China participates in international security cooperation, conducts various forms of military exchanges and promotes the establishment of military confidence-building mechanisms in accordance with this guideline.
This guideline adheres to and carries forward the strategic concept of people's war. In accordance with this guideline, China always relies on the people to build national defense and the armed forces, combines a lean standing force with a powerful reserve force, and endeavors to reinforce its national war potential and defense strength. China is working to set up a mechanism for unified and efficient national defense mobilization, stepping up the mobilization of economy, science and technology, information and transportation, and making improvements in the building of the reserve force. China is striving to make innovations in the content and forms of people's war, exploring new approaches of the people in participating in warfare and support for the front, and developing new strategies and tactics for people's war in conditions of informationization. Moreover, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) subordinates its development to the overall national construction, supports local economic and social development, and consolidates the unity between the PLA and the government, and between the PLA and the people
In the great historical course of China's reform and opening-up over the past three decades, the PLA has invariably taken modernization as its central task, continuously engaged in reform and innovation, comprehensively advanced revolutionization, modernization and regularization, and made important contributions to safeguarding national sovereignty and security, and maintaining world peace. In recent years, the PLA has accelerated RMA with Chinese characteristics, and pushed forward its military, political, logistical and equipment work in a coordinated way, in an effort to achieve sound and rapid development.
Thirty Years of Reform and Development
From the late 1970s and into the 1980s, the PLA set out on the road of building a streamlined military with Chinese characteristics. According to the scientific judgment that peace and development had become the principal themes of the times, it made a strategic shift in its guiding principle for military building from preparations for "an early, large-scale and nuclear war" to peacetime construction, and advanced its modernization step by step in a well-planned way under the precondition that such efforts should be both subordinated to and in the service of the country's overall development. It set the general goal of building a powerful military, revolutionary in nature, modernized and regularized, and blazed a trail for building a lean military with Chinese characteristics. It underwent significant adjustment and reform, and streamlined the size of its armed forces by a million troops, thereby taking an important step forward in making itself streamlined, combined and efficient.
Entering the 1990s, the PLA began to vigorously promote RMA with Chinese characteristics. It established the military strategic guideline of active defense for the new era, based on winning local wars in conditions of modern technology, particularly high technology. It began to adopt a strategy of strengthening the military by means of science and technology, and a three-step development strategy in modernizing national defense and the armed forces, and promoted the coordinated development of national defense and economy. Regarding RMA with Chinese characteristics as the only way to modernize the military, it put forward the strategic goal of building an informationized military and winning informationized wars. Driven by preparations for military struggle, it accelerated the development of weaponry and equipment, stepped up the development of the arms and services of the armed forces, as well as forces for emergency mobile operations, optimized its system and structure, and reduced the number of personnel by 700,000. As a result, its capability of defensive operations increased remarkably.
At the new stage in the new century, the PLA has been striving to create a new situation in its modernization drive at a new historical starting point. With the Scientific Outlook on Development as an important guiding principle for national defense and armed forces building, it has acted in accordance with the strategic thought of balancing economic and national defense development and integrating efforts to enrich the country and strengthen the military. It has been dedicated to performing its new historical missions and improving its capabilities to counter various security threats and accomplish diversified military tasks. It has accelerated the composite development of mechanization and informationization, vigorously conducts military training in conditions of informationization, and boosts innovation in military theory, technology, organization and management, to continuously increase the core military capability of winning local wars in conditions of informationization and the capability of conducting MOOTW.
Promoting the Improvement of Military Training
Regarding military training as the basic approach to furthering the comprehensive development of the military and raising combat effectiveness, the PLA is working to reform training programs, methods, management and support, and create a scientific system for military training in conditions of informationization.
Increasing training tasks. The PLA is intensifying strategic- and operational-level command post training and troop training in conditions of informationization, holding trans-regional evaluation exercises with opposing players, conducting whole-unit night training and carrying out integrated exercises for logistical and equipment support. Moreover, it is attaching more importance to MOOTW training in counter-terrorism, stability maintenance, emergency response, peacekeeping, emergency rescue and disaster relief.
Deepening training reform. The PLA is creating a task list for military training in conditions of informationization, developing a new edition of the Outline for Military Training and Evaluation, and promoting the application of innovations made in training reform. It is also reinforcing the joint training of the services and arms, strengthening functional training, giving prominence to command and coordinate training and the studies of ways of fighting, and improving training in regional cooperation. It is improving on-base training and simulated training, promoting web-based training, and conducting training with opposing players. It is also reforming training evaluation mechanisms, making training standards stricter, and enforcing meticulous management of the whole process and all aspects of military training.
Conducting training in complex electromagnetic environments. The PLA is spreading basic knowledge of electromagnetic-spectrum and battlefield-electromagnetic environments, learning and mastering basic theories of information warfare, particularly electronic warfare. It is enhancing training on how to operate and use informationized weaponry and equipment, and command information systems. It is working on the informationizing of combined tactical training bases, and holding exercises in complex electromagnetic environments.
Strengthening Ideological and Political Work
The PLA insists on putting ideological and political work first, and pushing forward the innovative development of ideological and political work, to ensure the Party's absolute leadership over the armed forces, the scientific development of the military, the all-round development of the officers and men, the increase of combat capabilities and the effective fulfillment of historical missions.
In January 2007 the General Political Department of the PLA issued the Guideline for the Ideological and Political Education of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (Trial). This guideline spells out clearly that such education refers to the work by the Communist Party of China (CPC) to arm the military with political theories and provide it with ideological guidance; scientifically regulates such education for all kinds of PLA forces and personnel; and further strengthens the development of rules and regulations for such education. Pursuant to the guideline, units whose ratios of political education to military training are 3 to 7 and 2 to 8 should devote 54 and 42 workdays, respectively, to political education each year. The PLA persists in arming its officers and men with the theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics, educates them in its historical missions, ideals, beliefs, fighting spirit and the socialist concept of honor and disgrace, and carries forward the fine traditions of obeying the Party's orders, serving the people, and fighting bravely and skillfully. The PLA's ideological and political education adheres to six principles: to be guided by scientific theories, to put the people first, to focus on the central task and serve the overall interests, to aim at concrete results, to educate through practical activities, and to encourage innovation and development. Following these principles, the PLA has flexibly applied and innovatively developed educational forms and means, improved radio, television and network educational facilities, and built military history museums, cultural centers, "homes of political instructors," study rooms, and company clubs and honors exhibitions.
In April 2008 the Central Military Commission (CMC) approved the Regulations of the Chinese People's Liberation Army on the Work of Servicemen's Committees, which was jointly issued by the Headquarters of the General Staff, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department and the General Armament Department. The document has institutionalized political democracy, economic democracy and military democracy for grass-roots units in the new situation. The servicemen's committee is an organization through which the grass-roots military units practice democracy in political, economic and military affairs and through which the servicemen exercise their democratic rights and carry out mass activities. It exercises the following functions too: to advise on combat readiness training, education and management, logistical support, and weaponry and equipment management of its own unit; to make recommendations on issues concerning the immediate interests of officers and men, such as the selection and promotion of non-commissioned officers (NCOs), selection of qualified enlisted men to enter military educational institutions either through examinations or directly, selection of enlisted men for technical training, and selection of servicemen for commendations and rewards; to supervise officers and men on the performance of their duties and observation of law and discipline; and to protect the collective interests of the unit, and the legitimate rights and interests of officers and men. Consisting of five to seven members chosen by the servicemen's assembly through election by secret ballot, the servicemen's committee works under the leadership of the unit Party branch (or grass-roots Party committee) and the guidance of the unit commanders.
Enhancing the Cost-Effectiveness of Logistical Support
The PLA vigorously promotes integration in logistical support system, outsourcing in logistical support method, informationization in logistical support means, and scientific approach in logistical support management, to build a modern logistics system. In December 2007 the CMC promulgated the Outline for Building a Modern Logistics System, specifying the guidelines, principles, objectives and tasks for the development of modern logistics.
Deepening logistics reform. The PLA persists in promoting re-forms in joint logistics. In April 2007 the Jinan Theater formally adopted the joint logistics system based on the integration of tri-service logistical support. To speed up the outsourcing process, the PLA out-sources the commercial and housing services of combat units stationed in large- and medium-sized cities, general-purpose materials storage, capital construction, logistical equipment production and logistical technical services. To enhance budgeting reforms, it promotes the creation of databases for budget items, strengthens the investment assessment and evaluation of major projects, summarizes and popularizes such practices as the integration of assets management with budget management and the control of expenses concerning administrative consumables, and gradually adopts the practice of using work-related expenditure cards for payment and account settlement. It enlarges the scope of centralized procurement, increases the proportion of procurement through bidding, and extends centralized procurement to non-combat units.
Upgrading logistical support. The PLA has substantially increased funding for education and training, political work, health care, water and electricity supplies, heating, barracks maintenance, etc. It has increased allowances for aviators, sailors and astronauts. It has increased post allowances for officers in grass-roots units and duty allowances for enlisted men. It has raised servicemen's injury and death insurance and board expenses. It has set standards for the subsidies and fees for small, scattered, distant units and units directly under the headquarters. In August 2007 all PLA troops began to replace their old uniforms with the 07 series.
Regulating logistics management. To step up standardization, the PLA is redoubling its efforts in the standardized provision of maintenance funds and centrally allocated supplies, regulating the management of construction-related supplies, and creating step by step a system of logistical support standards and regulations covering supply, consumption and management. It strengthens financial management, spends according to standards and within its budget, and carries out construction according to its financial strength. It pays close attention to the safe management of drinking water, food, medical care, medicine, petroleum, oils and lubricants, transportation and dangerous articles. It is improving the mechanism to prevent and control public health hazards; standardizing the management of military vehicles; conducting a special review of housing for active officers at and above the corps level; imposing strict management on military housing and the lease of unoccupied real estate; and improving the system for the employment of civilians. In January 2007 the CMC promulgated the newly revised Audit Regulations of the Chinese People's Liberation Army. The PLA has launched an in-depth movement to conserve energy and resources by encouraging conservation-minded supply and consumption. It protects the ecological environment of military areas by initiating a grassland conservation project, a pilot project for preventing and alleviating sand storms affecting coastal military facilities, and efforts to harness pollution by military units stationed in the area known as the Bohai Sea rim.
Boosting Integrated Equipment Support
Meeting the requirements of tri-service integration, joint operations, systems building and systems integration, the PLA is continually improving its weaponry and equipment system and elevating integrated equipment support.
Accelerating the building of a modern weaponry and equipment system with Chinese characteristics. Persisting in self-reliance and independent innovation, the PLA gives priority to developing informationized weapons and equipment which can meet the requirements of integrated joint operations, and carries out prioritized and selective retrofitting and upgrading of existing equipment. It has basically established an army equipment system featuring high mobility and three-dimensional assault, a naval equipment system with integrated sea-air capabilities for offshore defensive operations, an air force equipment system with integrated air-land capabilities for both offensive and defensive operations, a surface-to-surface missile equipment system for the Second Artillery Force comprising both nuclear and conventional missiles with different ranges, and an electronic information equipment system featuring systems integration and joint development.
Raising the level of equipment management and the capability of new equipment maintenance and support. The PLA is intensifying the scientific, institutionalized and regular management of equipment, and has adopted a system of accountability to improve weapon and equipment readiness. Emphasis is laid on cultivating the capability of equipment maintenance and support, the techniques and means of which are being gradually shifted from being applicable to equipment of the first and second generations to being applicable to the second and third generations. Overhaul and emergency support capabilities have been basically developed for the main equipment. The PLA has augmented equipment support forces and formed a preliminary system of such forces, with regular forces as the backbone, reserve forces as the reinforcement, and backup forces as the supplement. Equipment manufacturing units have been ordered to rehearse the mobilization of technical support forces, and approaches to civil-military integrated support have been explored.
Adjusting and reforming the equipment procurement system. In the past two years, the PLA has further expanded the scope of competitive, centralized and integrated procurement. In line with the demand to separate and balance planning, contract fulfillment, contract supervision and contract auditing, the PLA has adjusted and improved the organizational system for equipment procurement, and reformed the system of resident military representatives in factories.
Speeding up Informationization
Actively coping with the challenges presented by the worldwide RMA, the PLA extensively applies information technology, develops and utilizes information resources in various fields of military building, and strives to take a road of military informationization with Chinese characteristics which highlights the leading role of information, pursues composite development, promotes independent innovation and facilitates transformation.
Starting with command automation in the 1970s, the PLA has shifted the focus of informationization from specific areas to trans-area systems integration, and is on the whole at the initial stage of comprehensive development. Currently, aiming at integration, the PLA is persisting in combining breakthroughs in key sectors with comprehensive development, technological innovation with structural reform, and the development and building of new systems with the modification of existing ones to tap their potentials; enhancing systems integration; stepping up efforts to develop and utilize information resources; and gradually developing and improving the capability of fighting based on information systems.
Achievements have been made in the building of military information systems, with the priority being given to command information systems. The integrated military information network came into operation in 2006, resulting in the further improvement of the information infrastructure, basic information support and information security assurance. Progress has been made in the building of command and control systems for integrated joint operations, significantly enhancing the capability of battlefield information support. IT-based training methods have undergone considerable development; surveying and mapping, navigation, weather forecasting, hydrological observation and space environment support systems have been further optimized; a number of information systems for logistical and equipment support have been successfully developed and deployed; and full-scale efforts in building "digital campuses" have begun in PLA educational institutions.
Main battle weapon systems are being gradually informationized. The focus is to increase the capability of the main battle weapon systems in the areas of rapid detection, target location, friend-or-foe identification and precision strikes. Some tanks, artillery pieces, ships and aircraft in active service have been informationized, new types of highly informationized combat platforms have been successfully developed, and the proportion and number of precision-guided munitions are on the rise.
The conditions for informationization have been improved. A leadership, management and consultation system for informationization has been basically set up, and the centralized and unified leadership for informationization has been strengthened. Theoretical explorations and studies of key practical issues related to informationization have been continuously intensified, medium-and long-term plans and guidance for informationization of the military formulated and promulgated, technical standards revised and refined, and institutional education and personnel training catering to the requirements of informationization strengthened.
Stepping up Personnel Training
The PLA is further implementing the strategic project for talented people, improving its training system and laying stress on the training of commanding officers for joint operations and high-level technical experts in an effort to cultivate a large contingent of new-type and high-caliber military personnel.
In April 2008, the CMC issued Opinions on Strengthening and Improving the Officers Training Work of the Armed Forces, explicitly requiring the establishment and improvement of the service-long and all-personnel training system, which takes level-by-level training as the backbone and on-the-job training as the supplement, and matches training with assignment. A situation is to be created in which institutional education is linked with training in units, education in military educational institutions is carried on in parallel with education through regular institutions of higher learning, and domestic training is combined with overseas training.
Strengthening the training of commanding officers for joint operations. Various measures are being taken to step up efforts to train commanding officers for joint operations, such as institutional education, on-the-job study and rotation of posts. Incorporating joint operations into the whole training process, the PLA carefully distinguishes between the training tasks of educational institutions of different levels and types, and couples institutional education with training in units, so as to establish a system for training joint operations commanding officers which emphasizes both institutional education and practice in units. The PLA has launched the Key Projects of Military Educational Institutions and made step-by-step progress in these projects.
Selecting and training officer candidates. In October 2007 the CMC approved and the four general headquarters/departments jointly promulgated the Regulations of the Chinese People's Liberation Army on the Admission Work of Educational Institutions, regulating the admission of high-school graduates and enlisted men into military educational institutions. At the end of 2007 the Ministry of Education and the General Political Department of the PLA co-sponsored a conference on the issue of training PLA officers via regular institutions of higher learning. At present, there are117 colleges and universities with defense students. The PLA has selected nearly 1,000 key middle schools in the various provinces and municipalities as the main sources of defense students.
Creating a favorable environment for cultivating talented people. The PLA has established and improved a mechanism for rewarding and inspiring talented people, issuing high rewards to outstanding commanding officers, staff officers and technical experts, as well as teams which have made great contributions in scientific and technological innovation. Since 2007 additional funds amounting to RMB 700 million have been devoted to talent cultivation. In July 2007 the CMC promulgated the Provisions of the Armed Forces on Attracting and Retaining High-level Specialized Technical Personnel, specifying effective measures to attract and retain particularly leading scientists, first-rate personnel in specific disciplines and technical experts. In March 2008 the Guideline of the Chinese People's Liberation Army for the Evaluation of Commanding Officers, the Implementation Measures of the Chinese People's Liberation Army on the Evaluation of Commanding Officers and the Standards of the Chinese People's Liberation Army for the Evaluation of Commanding Officers (Trial) were published, which marked the initial establishment of a system for the evaluation of commanding officers in accordance with the requirements of scientific development.
Persisting in Governing the Forces in Accordance with the Law
The PLA persists in taking it as the basic requirement of the regularization drive to govern the armed forces in accordance with the law, and emphasizes scientific legislation and strict law enforcement to enhance its level of regularization.
In the past 30 years of reform and opening-up the military legislative system has been improved step by step, and remarkable achievements have been made in military legislation. In 1988 the CMC set up a legal organ, and the general headquarters/departments, Navy, Air Force, Second Artillery Force and military area commands designated specific departments to be in charge of legal affairs. In 1997 the Law of the People's Republic of China on National Defense was promulgated, specifying that the CMC enacts military regulations in accordance with the Constitution and relevant laws. The Law of the People's Republic of China on Legislation promulgated in 2000 further defined the legislative authority of the CMC, general headquarters/departments, Navy, Air Force, Second Artillery Force, and military area commands. By October 2008, the National People's Congress (NPC) and its Standing Committee had made 15 laws and law-related decisions concerning national defense and armed forces building; the State Council and the CMC had jointly formulated 94 military administrative regulations; the CMC had formulated 215 military regulations; and the general headquarters/departments, Navy, Air Force, Second Artillery Force, military area commands and People's Armed Police Force (PAPF) had enacted more than 3,000 military rules and regulations. In June 2007 and December 2008, the NPC Standing Committee ratified respectively the Treaty on the Temporary Stay of the Army of One Party in the Territory of the Other Party during the Period of Joint Military Exercises between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation and the Agreement among the Member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization on Conducting Joint Military Exercises.
The PLA persists in governing the forces strictly and in accordance with the law, and improves the mechanism for making decisions and providing guidance in accordance with the law in an effort to institutionalize and regularize military, political, logistical and equipment work. It practices scientific management, strictly enforces rules and regulations, and incorporates the cultivation of proper style and strict discipline into the routine education and administration of the forces. Through strict training and daily cultivation, the PLA aims to build a force with a refined military posture, strict discipline and fine work style.
Taking disseminating knowledge of the law as an important part of strengthening all-round building, the PLA places emphasis on disseminating legal knowledge, and is stepping up efforts to popularize knowledge of the law with a clear aim and in an active and effective way. Units with security tasks in the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics organized officers and men to study relevant laws and regulations to enhance their legal awareness and their capability of dealing with emergencies in accordance with the law. Officers and men of units tasked with international peacekeeping missions and of naval ships making port calls have been organized to study the United Nations Charter, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, etc. In November 2007 the Chinese government established the National Committee for International Humanitarian Law, under the arrangement and coordination of which relevant military agencies disseminate knowledge of and implement international humanitarian law within the PLA.
As the basis of the PLA, the Army is a service mainly conducting land operations. It consists of such arms as infantry, armor, artillery, air defense, aviation, engineering, signals, chemical defense and electronic countermeasures (ECM), as well as various specialized service units.
History of Development
The PLA was founded on August 1, 1927, and comprised only the Army in its early days. For a long time the Army was mainly composed of infantry. During the Agrarian Revolutionary War (1927-1937) a small number of cavalry, artillery, engineering and signals troops were added. The Liberation War (1946-1949) witnessed the advent of tank and chemical defense forces. In the 1950s the Army set up leading organs for such arms as artillery, armor, engineering and chemical defense. Since the 1980s the structure of the Army has changed dramatically, with the creation of the aviation and ECM arms and the establishment in 1985 of Army combined corps. After 81 years of development, the Army has grown from a single arm into a modern army with various arms. It has become a powerful service capable of conducting both independent and joint operations with the Navy, Air Force and Second Artillery Force.
Structure and Organization
The Army has no independent leading body, and its leadership is exercised by the four general headquarters/departments. The seven military area commands exercise direct leadership over the Army units under them. The Army includes units of mobile operational, garrison, border and coastal defense, and reserve troops. The organizational order of these units is combined corps, division (brigade), regiment, battalion, company, platoon and squad. Directly under a military area command, a combined corps consists of divisions or brigades, and acts as a basic formation at the operational level. Directly under a combined corps, a division consists of regiments and acts as a basic formation at the tactical level. Directly under a combined corps, a brigade consists of battalions, and acts as a formation at the tactical level. Normally under a division, a regiment consists of battalions, and acts as a basic tactical unit. Normally under a regiment or brigade, a battalion consists of companies, and acts as a tactical element at a higher level. A company consists of platoons, and acts as a basic tactical element. The Army mobile operational units include 18 combined corps and some independent combined operational divisions (brigades).
In recent years, in line with the strategic requirements of mobile operations and three-dimensional offense and defense, the Army has been moving from regional defense to trans-regional mobility. It is gradually making its units small, modular and multi-functional in organization through appropriate downsizing and structural reform. It is accelerating the development of aviation, light mechanized and information countermeasure forces, and gives priority to the development of operational and tactical missile, ground-to-air missile and special operations forces, so as to increase its capabilities for air-ground integrated operations, long-distance maneuvers, rapid assaults and special operations.
The Army has made great progress in building its arms. The armored component has been working to enhance the integration of information systems with weapon platforms, deploy new major battle tanks, and develop heavy, amphibious and light mechanized forces. The proportion of armored mechanized divisions/brigades in combined operational divisions/brigades has further increased. The artillery component has been working to develop a three-level operational command system and deploy a series of advanced weapons and equipment, and new types of ammunition, such as operational and tactical missiles and large-caliber self-propelled gun-howitzers. It has established a preliminary system for all-range precision strikes. The air defense component has been working to deploy a series of advanced field ground-to-air missiles, and new types of radar and intelligence command systems, and to establish and improve an air defense operations system combining reconnaissance, early warning, command and control, and information countermeasures and interception. The engineering component has been working to accelerate the establishment of a system of both specialized and multifunctional engineering support forces which can be used both in peacetime and wartime. It has developed relatively strong capabilities in the fields of accompanying support, rapid barrier breaching, comprehensive protection, counter-terrorist explosive ordnance disposal, emergency rescue and disaster relief. The chemical defense component has been working to develop new types of protection forces. It has established a preliminary integrated system of nuclear, biological and chemical early warning, reconnaissance and monitoring, protection command and protection forces.
The Army aviation wing is one of the combat arms of the Army, and has a three-level (general headquarters/departments, theaters and combined corps) administration system. In recent years it has been working to shift from being a support force focusing on transportation missions to being an integrated combat force focusing on air assault missions; it has stepped up training in fire assault, aircraft-borne operations, air mobility and air service support; and actively participated in counter-terrorism, stability maintenance, border closure and control, emergency rescue, disaster relief and joint exercises. The purpose is to build a well-equipped and multifunctional Army aviation force which is appropriate in size and optimal in structure.
The border and coastal defense force of the Army, under the leadership of general headquarters/departments, military area and provincial military commands, is the mainstay for safeguarding national sovereignty and territorial integrity, and maintaining security and stability in border and coastal areas. In recent years, adhering to the principles of placing equal emphasis on land and sea, strengthening border defense by means of science and technology, giving priority to key projects and promoting coordinated development, the border and coastal defense force has focused on combat readiness, and comprehensively enhanced its reconnaissance and surveillance, command and control, quick response and defensive operations capabilities. It has consistently strengthened the defense and protection of major directions and sensitive regions, watercourses and sea waters in border and coastal areas. It has intensified border control and management, and participated in emergency-handling and disaster-relief missions. It has carried out extensive exchanges and cooperation on border defense with neighboring countries, and dealt with border and coastal affairs proactively and appropriately. As a result, it has made important contributions to peace and stability, reform, opening-up, and social and economic progress in border and coastal areas.
The Navy is a strategic service of the PLA, and the main force for maritime operations. It is responsible for such tasks as safeguarding China's maritime security and maintaining the sovereignty of its territorial waters, along with its maritime rights and interests. The Navy is mainly composed of submarine, surface ship, aviation, Marine Corps and coastal defense wings.
History of Development
The Navy was founded on April 23, 1949. From 1949 to 1955 it set up the surface ship force, coastal defense force, aviation, submarine force and Marine Corps, and established the objective of building a light maritime combat force. From 1955 to 1960 it established the Donghai Fleet, Nanhai Fleet and Beihai Fleet, successively. From the 1950s to the end of the 1970s the main task of the Navy was to conduct inshore defensive operations. Since the1980s, the Navy has realized a strategic transformation to offshore defensive operations. Since the beginning of the new century, in view of the characteristics and laws of local maritime wars in conditions of informationization, the Navy has been striving to improve in an all-round way its capabilities of integrated offshore operations, strategic deterrence and strategic counterattacks, and to gradually develop its capabilities of conducting cooperation in distant waters and countering non-traditional security threats, so as to push forward the overall transformation of the service. Through nearly six decades of development, a modern force for maritime operations has taken shape, consisting of combined arms with both nuclear and conventional means of operations.
Structure and Organization
In time of peace, the Navy adopts a leadership system which com-bines operational command with building and administration, and which mainly consists of the Navy Headquarters, fleets, test bases, educational institutions, and an armaments academy. There are three fleets under the Navy, namely, the Beihai Fleet, Donghai Fleet and Nanhai Fleet, which are headquartered respectively in Qingdao of Shandong Province, Ningbo of Zhejiang Province, and Zhanjiang of Guangdong Province. Each fleet has under its command fleet aviation, support bases, flotillas, maritime garrison commands, aviation divisions and marine brigades. At present, the Navy has eight educational institutions, namely, the Naval Command College, Naval Engineering University, Naval Aeronautical Engineering College, Dalian Naval Academy, Naval Submarine College, Naval Arms Command College, Naval Flying College and Bengbu Naval School for Non-commissioned Officers.
The submarine force is equipped with nuclear-powered strategic missile submarines, nuclear-powered attack submarines and conventional submarines, all organized into submarine bases and submarine flotillas. The surface ship force mainly consists of destroyers, frigates, missile boats, mine sweepers, landing ships and service ships, and is organized into flotillas of destroyers, speedboats, landing ships and combat support ships, as well as maritime garrison commands. The aviation wing mainly consists of fighters, fighter-bombers, bombers, reconnaissance aircraft, patrol aircraft and helicopters, all organized into aviation divisions. The Marine Corps is organized into marine brigades, and mainly consists of marines, amphibious armored troops, artillery troops, engineers and amphibious reconnaissance troops. The coastal defense force is mainly organized into coastal missile regiments and antiaircraft artillery regiments, and mainly consists of shore-to-ship missile, antiaircraft artillery and coastal artillery troops.
In line with the requirements of offshore defense strategy, the Navy takes informationization as the orientation and strategic priority of its modernization drive, and is endeavoring to build a strong navy. It deepens reforms and innovations in training programs and methods, highlights training in maritime integrated joint operations, and enhances integrated combat capability in conducting offshore campaigns and the capability of nuclear counterattacks. It organizes in a scientific way operational training, tactical training, specialized skill training and common subject training, focuses on the integrated training of joint operations elements in conditions of informationization and explores methods of training in complex electromagnetic environments. It also attaches importance to MOOTW, training and actively participates in bilateral and multilateral joint training exercises.
Upgrading weaponry and equipment, and optimizing the weaponry and equipment system. Efforts are being made to build new types of submarines, destroyers, frigates and aircraft, forming a preliminary weaponry and equipment system with second-generation equipment as the core and the third generation as the backbone. The submarine force possesses underwater anti-ship, anti-submarine and mine-laying capabilities, as well as some nuclear counterattack capabilities. The surface ship force has developed a surface striking force represented by new types of missile destroyers and frigates, and possesses maritime reconnaissance, anti-ship, anti-submarine, air-defense, mine-laying and other operational capabilities. The aviation wing has developed an air striking force represented by sea-attack aircraft, and possesses reconnaissance, anti-ship, anti-submarine and air-defense operational capabilities. The Marine Corps has developed an amphibious operational force represented by amphibious armored vehicles, and possesses amphibious operational capabilities. The coastal defense force is represented by new types of shore-to-ship missiles and possesses high coastal defense operations capability.
Optimizing the logistical support system, and improving maritime integrated support capabilities. Aiming at enhancing its integrated logistical support capabilities, the Navy has preliminarily built a logistical support system with shore-based logistical support as the foundation and sea-based logistical support as the mainstay, and meshes the two into an integrated whole. It has stepped up the building of ship bases, berthing areas, supply points, docks and airfields. As a result, a shore-based support system is basically in place, which is coordinated with the development of weaponry and equipment, and suited to war-time support tasks. The Navy has gradually deployed new types of large integrated supply ships, medical ships and ambulance helicopters, and succeeded in developing many types of maritime support equipment and a number of key technologies, leading to significant progress in the modernization of the maritime support force.
Enhancing the capabilities and quality of naval officers and men, and training qualified military personnel. The Navy has adopted a personnel training model in which commanding officer candidates receive integrated education for academic credentials and separate pre-assignment education, and is making efforts to improve the pre-assignment training system for officers. The personnel training of the Navy highlights the uniqueness of the service, and stresses the cultivation of practical capabilities. To raise officers' competence for handling their assignments, the Navy is striving to improve the personnel training programs of its educational institutions and implement assignment-oriented curricula. It is also endeavoring to expand the scale of training for NCOs and foster intermediate and senior NCOs qualified for technically complex posts.
The Air Force is a strategic service of the PLA, and the main force for carrying out air operations. It is responsible for such tasks as safeguarding the country's territorial air space and territorial sovereignty, and maintaining a stable air defense posture nationwide. It is mainly composed of aviation, ground air defense, airborne, signal, radar, ECM, technical reconnaissance and chemical defense sections.
History of Development
The Air Force was founded on November 11, 1949. The years from 1949 to 1953 witnessed the establishment of an Air Force leading organs in the CMC and in each of the military area commands; the creation of the fighter, bomber, attacker, reconnaissance and transport, airborne forces and a number of educational institutions; and the organization of the Air Force of the Chinese People's Volunteers to take part in the War to Resist U.S. Aggression and Aid Korea (1950-1953). The Air Force was merged with the Air Defense Force in 1957, by adopting a system combining air operations with air defense. In the 1960s and 1970s the Air Force formed the guiding principle of giving priority to the development of air defense forces, and gradually grew into an air force for territorial air defense. Since the 1990s the Air Force has been in a phase of rapid development. It has deployed third-generation combat aircraft, third-generation ground-to-air missiles, and a series of relatively advanced and computerized weapons and equipment. It has stepped up the development of military theories with strategic theories at the core, and introduced a strategic concept that the Air Force should be capable of both offensive and defensive operations. As a result, the Air Force has begun its transition from territorial air defense to both offensive and defensive operations. After nearly six decades of development, the Air Force has initially developed into a strategic service comprising more than one wings. It now has relatively strong capabilities to conduct air defensive and offensive operations, and certain capabilities to execute long-range precision strikes and strategic projection operations.
Structure and Organization
In peacetime, the Air Force practices a leadership system which combines operational command with building and administration, and which consists of the Air Force Headquarters, air commands under military area commands, corps-level (division-level) command posts, divisions (brigades) and regiments. The Air Force has under it an air command in each of the seven military area commands of Shenyang, Beijing, Lanzhou, Jinan, Nanjing, Guangzhou and Chengdu. It has also under it an airborne corps as well as various institutions of education, research and experimentation. Under each air command at the military area command level are aviation divisions, ground-to-air missile divisions (brigades and regiments), antiaircraft artillery brigades (regiments), radar brigades (regiments), ECM brigades (regiments and battalions), and other specialized service units. In key areas there are also corps- or division-level command posts. The Air Force has also a number of educational and training institutions, including the Air Force Command College, Air Force Engineering University, Air Force Aviation University, Air Force Radar College, Air Force College at Guilin, Air Force College at Xuzhou, Air Force School for Noncommissioned Officers at Dalian and seven flying colleges.
An aviation division usually consists of regiments, groups and squadrons, and has such types of aircraft as fighters, attackers, fighter-bombers, bombers, transports and combat support aircraft. It has under it aviation regiments and related stations. The aviation regiment is the basic tactical unit. With battalions as the basic fighting units, the ground-to-air missile force is usually organized into divisions, regiments and battalions or into brigades (regiments) and battalions. With batteries as basic fighting units, the antiaircraft artillery force is usually organized into brigades (regiments), battalions and companies. The airborne forces are organized into corps, divisions, regiments, battalions and companies.
To meet the requirements of informationized warfare, the Air Force is working to accelerate its transition from territorial air defense to both offensive and defensive operations, and increase its capabilities for carrying out reconnaissance and early warning, air strikes, air and missile defense, and strategic projection, in an effort to build itself into a modernized strategic air force.
Taking into full account preparations for combat and its own transformation and development, the Air Force is exploring training systems and methods tailored to the development of the latest generation of weaponry and equipment. It stresses technical and tactical training in complex environments, combined training of different arms and aircraft types, and joint training; conducts mission-oriented and confrontational training; and is increasing on-base, simulated and web-based training. It is working to optimize the tripartite pilot training system composed of flying colleges, training bases and combat units, and intensifying the training of aviation units in counter-air operations, air-to-ground attacks and joint operations. It is deepening reforms and innovations in institutional education by improving the system of discipline, and making innovations in teaching programs, means and methods. It is strengthening on-the-job training, and exploring a new model of personnel development, namely the triad of institutional education, training in units and professional military education. For this purpose, the Air Force Military Professional University was established in July 2008.
To satisfy the strategic requirements of conducting both offensive and defensive operations, the Air Force attaches importance to developing new types of fighters, air and anti-missile defense weapons, and command automation systems. It has deployed some relatively advanced computerized equipment, and air-to-air and air-to-ground precision-guided munitions, upgraded the electronic information systems of the equipment on active service, and improved the basic networks for intelligence and early warning, command and control, and communications. It has in the main established a major battle weaponry and equipment system with third-generation aircraft and ground-to-air missiles as the mainstay, and modified second-generation aircraft and ground-to-air missiles as the supplement.
Centering on the improvement of the capabilities and quality of its personnel, the Air Force pursues a road of personnel development which takes new- and high-tech talents as the driving force, makes breakthroughs in critical areas and aims at overall improvement. It makes overall plans for training command, staff, flight and technical support personnel. It has fostered a group of core personnel with a good command of information technology and a contingent of new types of high-caliber personnel as represented by inter-disciplinary commanding officers, first-rate pilots, leaders in scientific and technological research, and technical experts.
To raise its integrated support capabilities, the Air Force attaches importance to the development of logistical and equipment support systems. It endeavors to improve the support facilities of airfields and positions; strengthen its logistical forces for rapid construction of air defense projects, bomb elimination at and rapid repair of airfields which have suffered attack, and aviation medical support; develop and deploy the second generation of specialized logistical equipment; create a storage and supply network for special-purpose materials; and build step by step bases capable of supporting multiple types of aircraft. The Air Force is also stepping up efforts to deepen the reform of the equipment support mode; improve the layout of support networks for the supply, maintenance and technical support of ammunition and material; and make support equipment smaller in size, more versatile in function and fitter for field operations.
The Second Artillery Force is a strategic force under the direct command and control of the CMC, and the core force of China for strategic deterrence. It is mainly responsible for deterring other countries from using nuclear weapons against China, and for conducting nuclear counterattacks and precision strikes with conventional missiles.
The Second Artillery Force sticks to China's policy of no first use of nuclear weapons, implements a self-defensive nuclear strategy, strictly follows the orders of the CMC, and takes it as its fundamental mission the protection of China from any nuclear attack. In peacetime the nuclear missile weapons of the Second Artillery Force are not aimed at any country. But if China comes under a nuclear threat, the nuclear missile force of the Second Artillery Force will go into a state of alert, and get ready for a nuclear counterattack to deter the enemy from using nuclear weapons against China. If China comes under a nuclear attack, the nuclear missile force of the Second Artillery Force will use nuclear missiles to launch a resolute counterattack against the enemy either independently or together with the nuclear forces of other services. The conventional missile force of the Second Artillery Force is charged mainly with the task of conducting medium- and long-range precision strikes against key strategic and operational targets of the enemy.
History of Development
The founding of the Second Artillery Force was a historical choice the People's Republic of China was forced to make to deal with nuclear threats, break nuclear monopoly and maintain national security. China began to develop strategic missile weapons in 1956,established research, training and educational institutions for strategic missiles in 1957, created its first ground-to-ground missile unit in 1959 and formally founded the Second Artillery Force on July 1, 1966. In the latter half of the 1970s, the Second Artillery Force set itself the objective of building a lean and effective strategic missile force with Chinese characteristics. In the 1990s it established its conventional missile force, entering a new stage marked by the coordinated development of its nuclear and conventional missile forces. With the advent of the 21st century it began to promote leapfrogging development of informationization. Through more than 40 years of development, the Second Artillery Force has grown into a lean and effective strategic force with both nuclear and conventional missiles, capable of both land-based strategic nuclear counterattacks and precision strikes with conventional missiles.
Structure and Organization
The operational command authority of the Second Artillery Force is highly centralized. The chain of command runs from the CMC, the Second Artillery Force and missile bases to missile brigades. The operations of the Second Artillery Force must follow the orders of the CMC in the strictest and most precise manner.
The Second Artillery Force is mainly composed of the nuclear missile force, the conventional missile force, the support force, educational institutions, research institutes and the headquarter organizations. The missile force is organized into missile bases, missile brigades and launch battalions. The support force is organized into technical and specialized support units such as reconnaissance, intelligence, signal, ECM, engineering, logistics and equipment units. The educational institutions include a command college, an engineering college and a school for NCOs. The research institutes include equipment and engineering institutes.
Following the principle of building a lean and effective force and going with the tide of the development of military science and technology, the Second Artillery Force strives to raise the informationization level of its weaponry and equipment, ensure their safety and reliability, and enhance its capabilities in protection, rapid reaction, penetration, damage and precision strike. After several decades of development, it has created a weaponry and equipment system with both nuclear and conventional missiles, both solid-fueled and liquid-fueled missiles, different launching ranges and different types of warheads.
The Second Artillery Force is endeavoring to form a complete system for war preparations, optimize its combat force structure, and build a missile operational system suited to informationized warfare. Its nuclear and conventional missile forces are kept at an appropriate level of readiness. The Second Artillery Force is making steady head-way in the construction of its battlefield system, and makes extensive use of modern mechanical equipment and construction methods. Each completed project is up to standard. The Second Artillery Force is also dedicated to logistical reforms and innovations. It has created integrated data bases for field support and informationized management platforms for logistic materials, and improved support systems for the survival of combatants in operational positions. As a result, its integrated logistical support capabilities in case of actual combat have been markedly enhanced. To ensure the absolute safety of nuclear weapons, the Second Artillery Force strictly implements rules and regulations for nuclear safety control and accreditation of personnel dealing with nuclear weapons, has adopted reliable technical means and methods, strengthens the safe management of nuclear weapons in the process of storage, transportation and training, improves mechanisms and methods for emergency response to nuclear accidents, and has put in place special safety measures to avoid unauthorized and accidental launches.
In terms of training, the Second Artillery Force takes specialized skills as the foundation, focuses on officers and core personnel, centers its attention on systems integration and aims at improving overall operational capabilities. It actively conducts specialized training, integrated training and operational training exercises. Specialized training mainly involves the study of basic and specialized missile theories, and the training in operating skills of weapons and equipment. Integrated training mainly consists of whole-process coordinated training of all elements within a combat formation. Operational training exercises refer to comprehensive training and exercises by missile brigades and support units in conditions similar to actual combat. The Second Artillery Force has adopted a rating system for unit training and an accreditation system for personnel at critical posts. It enhances on-base, simulated, web-based and realistic training, explores the characteristics and laws of training in complex electromagnetic environments and integrated training of missile bases, and is conducting R&D of a new generation of web-based simulated training systems. Significant progress has been made in building the "Informationized Blue Force" and battle laboratories.
The Second Artillery Force places personnel training in a strategic position, and gives it high priority. It is working to implement the Shenjian Project for Personnel Training, and create a three-tiered team of first-rate technical personnel. As a result, a contingent of talented people has taken shape, whose main body is composed of academicians of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, missile specialists, commanding officers, and skilled operators and technicians.
As a component of China's armed forces and subordinate to the State Council, the People's Armed Police Force (PAPF) is under the dual leadership of the State Council and the CMC. The PAPF consists of the internal security force and various police forces. The border public security, firefighting and security guard forces are also components of the PAPF. The PAPF is charged with the fundamental task of safeguarding national security, maintaining social stability and ensuring that the people live and work in peace and contentment.
Routine Guard Duties
Routine guard duties refer to duties the PAPF performs to maintain internal security, which are mostly carried out by the internal security force. The basic tasks are: to guard against all forms of attempted attacks and sabotage; protect designated individuals and facilities; ensure the security of important international and national conferences and large-scale cultural and sports events; protect important airports, radio stations, and key and confidential units, and vital places in such sectors as state economy and national defense; protect important bridges and tunnels; ensure the security of prisons and detention houses; and maintain public order in state-designated large and medium-sized cities or specific zones. Routine guard duties can be divided into regular and temporary missions. Usually the regular missions are assigned by the Ministry of Public Security, and the temporary ones are assigned by local Party committees, governments or public security organs.
Every day, more than 260,000 PAPF servicemen are on guard duty. In recent years, the PAPF has made efforts to regularize and strictly manage the performance of its duties, and improve it through science and technology, including improvement of duty-related facilities, and reduce hidden hazards. It has realized all-personnel, whole-process, full-time visualization in duty management. It has effectively enhanced duty performance and ensured the safety of guarded targets by optimizing duty organization and arrangement, implementing duty regulations and meticulously organizing important temporary duties. On average, the PAPF annually handles dozens of attempted attacks against guarded targets, prevents hundreds of escape attempts by detained suspects and imprisoned convicts, organizes thousands of important temporary duties, and ensures the security of important international and national conferences and large-scale events in cooperation with the government departments concerned. The various units of the PAPF take an active part in efforts to keep public order. Since 2007, they have assisted the public security organs in catching and arresting more than 2,800 criminal suspects.
Handling Public Emergencies
The handling of public emergencies refers to operations by the PAPF to deter and deal with emergencies which endanger public security. Mainly undertaken by the PAPF standby forces, such operations include those to handle public security incidents, natural disasters, disastrous accidents, and public health incidents. The specific tasks are to control affected areas, check the identifications, vehicles and belongings of suspected persons, protect important targets, disperse illegal assemblies, rescue hostages and those trapped by troublemakers, nip illegal activities and criminal offenses in the bud, hunt down criminal suspects, and participate in emergency rescue and disaster relief work.
The PAPF is the state's mainstay and shock force in handling public emergencies. The PAPF is assigned such missions by the CPC Central Committee, the State Council, the CMC or local Party committees, governments and public security organs, and carries out these missions under the unified leadership of the above authorities.
The PAPF makes full preparations for handling public emergencies by establishing all levels of command centers, improving information systems, allocating resources scientifically, and providing communications, supplies and transportation in a reliable way. On receiving mission orders, it is able to deploy immediately and arrive at the scene in time. It adopts such means and methods as military deterrence, persuasion and legitimate use of force. It always exercises caution in the use of force, compulsory measures, police instruments and weapons. It cracks down on a handful of criminals in accordance with the law and deals with public disturbances, riots, illegal demonstrations, group fighting with weapons, acts of violence and terrorism efficiently, appropriately and legally. In the past two years it has taken part in operations to handle the "3.14" Lhasa riots, hunt down the "East Turkistan" terrorists, conduct accident rescues, deal with large-scale mass disturbances, and respond to various emergencies. In this way it has effectively upheld the fundamental interests of the people, maintained the social stability of the places where its forces are stationed and safeguarded the authority of the nation's laws.
International Counter-Terrorism Cooperation
China attaches great importance to international counter-terrorism cooperation, and so far has participated in 11 international counter-terrorism treaties. The PAPF is an important counter-terrorism force of the state.
Strengthening international counter-terrorism consultations and exchanges. In compliance with international counter-terrorism treaties and agreements, the PAPF has sent delegations to over 30 countries for bilateral or multilateral counter-terrorism exchanges, including France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Australia, Israel, Brazil, Cuba, South Africa, Russia and Pakistan, and hosted delegations from 17 countries, such as Russia, Romania, France, Italy, Hungary, South Africa, Egypt, Australia and Belarus.
Sending personnel abroad to receive training or provide training assistance. The PAPF has sent delegations or personnel to a dozen countries, including France, Israel, Hungary, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand, to attend training courses in special duties, participate in or observe contests of various kinds, and conduct exchanges in counter-terrorism techniques and skills. It has sent teams of instructors to such countries as Romania and Azerbaijan to provide teaching or training assistance.
Holding joint counter-terrorism exercises. In September 2007, the PAPF and the Internal Troops of Russia staged their first joint counter-terrorism exercise, "Cooperation-2007. " The exercise focused on "operations by special forces to rescue hostages and destroy terrorist organizations and groups."
Maintaining Public Security in Border and Coastal Areas and Orderly Entry and Exit at Ports
The border public security force, listed as a component of the PAPF, is an armed law-enforcement body deployed by the state in border and coastal areas and at ports. Its main responsibilities are as follows: border and coastal public security administration; ports and border inspection and surveillance; patrols and surveillance in areas adjacent to Hong Kong and Macao; patrols and surveillance along the demarcation line of the Beibu Gulf; and the prevention of and crack-down on illegal and criminal acts in border and coastal areas, such as illegal border crossing, smuggling and drug trafficking.
The border public security force has 30 contingents in provinces (autonomous regions or municipalities directly under the central government, except Beijing); 110 detachments in border and coastal prefectures (prefecture-level cities, autonomous prefectures or leagues) and 20 marine police detachments in coastal prefectures; 207 active-duty border inspection stations at open ports; 310 groups in border and coastal counties (county-level cities or banners); 1,691 border police substations in border and coastal townships (towns); 46 frontier inspection stations on major border routes; and 113 mobile groups deployed in important sectors in border areas.
In recent years the border public security force has made efforts to implement the strategy of safeguarding the people and consolidating border defense; strengthen public security efforts by the general public; improve mechanisms for investigating, mediating and settling disputes, conflicts and mass incidents; tackle prominent public security issues; promote the building of model villages and consolidate border defense; and help children in need, thus vigorously promoting harmony and stability in border and coastal areas. Further efforts have been made by border inspection stations to improve their services. As a result, an environment has been created for safe, rapid and convenient customs clearance.
The border public security force, supported by other relevant departments, has cracked down hard on crimes, such as illegal border crossing, drug trafficking and smuggling, and carried out campaigns to combat organized criminal gangs and suppress evil forces in border and coastal areas. Since 2007 it has arrested 4,400 illegal border crossers, seized 3,806 kg of drugs, seized smuggled goods worth RMB620 million, cracked 19,205 criminal cases and handled 60,063 violations of public security.
Pursuant to relevant provisions of the Ministry of Public Security, the marine police force has established and strengthened maritime law-enforcement agencies, augmented its law-enforcement personnel, refined its law-enforcement regulations, and improved its ships and equipment. It has cracked 41 maritime criminal cases, carried out 115 maritime rescue and salvage operations, and saved 238 people in distress.
China firmly relies on the people for national defense, and seeks to strengthen the buildup of the national defense reserve incompliance with the requirement of being able to deal with both emergencies and wars.
Reserve Force Buildup
With active servicemen as its backbone and reserve officers and men as its foundation, the reserve force is an armed force formed in line with the unified structure and organization of the PLA. It is under the dual leadership of the PLA and local Party committees and governments.
The reserve force was founded in 1983. In August 1986 it formally became a part of the PLA. In May 1995 the NPC Standing Committee adopted the Law of the People's Republic of China on Reserve Officers. In April 1996 the CMC began to confer military ranks on reserve officers. The Law of the People's Republic of China on National Defense promulgated in March 1997 explicitly stipulates that China's armed forces consist of the active-duty force and the reserve force of the PLA, the People's Armed Police Force and the militia.
After 25 years of buildup and development, the reserve force has become an important component of the national defense reserve. It is made up of the Army Reserve, Navy Reserve, Air Force Reserve and the Second Artillery Force Reserve. The Army Reserve breaks down into infantry, artillery, antiaircraft artillery, antitank artillery, tank, engineering, chemical defense, signals, coastal defense and other specialized forces. The Navy Reserve is mainly composed of reconnaissance, mine-sweeping and mine-laying, radar observation and communications and other specialized forces. The Air Force Reserve mainly comprises ground-to-air missile, radar and other specialized forces. The Second Artillery Force Reserve mainly consists of the specialized missile support force and special equipment maintenance force.
In line with the unified structure and organization of the PLA, the reserve force has reserve divisions, brigades and regiments, and corresponding leading organs. Reserve units are organized mainly on a regional basis. Divisions are set up in provinces and brigades (regiments) in prefectures (autonomous prefectures or prefecture-level cities). A division (brigade) can be set up in a region covering more than one prefecture (autonomous prefecture or prefecture-level city), and a regiment in a region covering more than one county (county-level city or district).
In recent years, the reserve force has made new strides in organization building and military training. It has gradually enlarged the pool of reservists, improved its organizational methods, and actively explored new organizational models, such as industrial, trans-regional and community-based organizations. It conducts and manages training according to the training program and law, so as to regularize training. As stipulated in the Outline for the Military Training and Evaluation of the Reserve Force, one third of the authorized strength of a unit must undergo 30 days of training annually. Training tasks are based on possible wartime assignments and the caliber of the reservists. The reserve force is in the process of shifting its focus from quantity and scale to quality and efficiency, and from a combat role to a support role. The goal is to enable the reserve and active forces to cooperate closely with each other, to complement each other, and to develop in a coordinated way.
Militia Force Building
Militia work is under the unified leadership of the State Council and the CMC, and the leadership of local Party committees, local governments as well as the local military commands. The General Staff Headquarters supervises militia work nationwide. The military area commands are responsible for militia work in their respective jurisdictions. Provincial military commands, prefectural military commands and people's armed forces departments of counties (county-level cities or districts) are the organs of military leadership and command, and responsible for the militia work in their respective jurisdictions. The grass-roots people's armed forces departments established in town-ships (towns), urban sub-districts, enterprises and public institutions are responsible for organizing and carrying out militia work. Local Party committees and governments at all levels make overall plans and arrangements for militia work.
In recent years China has persisted in reform and innovation in militia force buildup, adjusted its size and structure, and upgraded its weaponry and equipment. The organizational structure has optimized to increase the capabilities of the militia to support combat and emergency response forces, and to gradually shift the center of its responsibilities from rural areas to cities, areas along communication lines and other key areas. Importance has been attached to establishing militia organizations in emerging enterprises and high-tech industries to increase the technology content of the militia force. Investment in weaponry and equipment has been increased to systematically and organically provide a series of new types of militia air defense equipment such as air defense artillery and portable air defense missiles in key areas. Equipment for emergency response and stability-maintenance operations has been improved. Some types of weapons have been upgraded. During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period (2006-2010) the number of militia personnel is scheduled to be reduced from 10 million to eight million.
In May 2007 the General Staff Headquarters released a new edition of the Outline for the Training and Evaluation of the Militia. The new outline adds over a hundred training tasks in dozens of categories covering specialties of the Navy, Air Force and Second Artillery Force, marking a shift from traditional single-service to multi-service/arm specialized militia training. Based on the principles of integrating resources, pooling strengths, organizing training level by level and conducting trans-regional training, the military training of the militia has a four-level organizational system: The provincial military commands are the backbone; the prefectural military commands are the main body; the people's armed forces departments are the basis; and the grass-roots people's armed forces departments are the supplement. The militia is improving its technology-based training, and promoting on-base, simulated and web-based training step by step. Prominence is given to such tasks as rapid mobilization of specialized detachments, coordination with active units and operations in complex electromagnetic environments. In addition, efforts are being made to enhance training in emergency response and rescue. The aim is to raise the militia's capabilities in combat operations, emergency rescue, disaster relief, crisis response and social stability maintenance.
The Chinese armed forces belong to the people. As stipulated by the Constitution and laws, it is an important task for the armed forces to take part in national development and disaster relief. Supporting the military and giving preferential treatment to families of servicemen and revolutionary martyrs, and supporting the government and cherishing the people (the "Two Supports") constitute the political basis for strengthening the buildup of national defense and the armed forces.
Participating in Emergency Rescue and Disaster Relief Operations
The PLA, PAPF and the militia are the shock force in emergency rescue and disaster relief operations. Their main tasks are to rescue and evacuate disaster victims and people in danger; ensure the security of important facilities and areas; rescue and transport important materials and goods; participate in specialized operations such as rush repairs of roads, bridges and tunnels, maritime search and rescue, NBC rescue operations, epidemic control, and medical aid; eliminate or control other major dangers and disasters; and assist local governments in post-disaster reconstruction if necessary. In recent years the PLA has formed 19 units specialized in flood control and emergency rescue operations.
In June 2005 the State Council and the CMC published the Regulations on the Participation of the People's Liberation Army in Emergency Rescue and Disaster Relief. According to the regulations, if the PLA is needed in emergency rescue and disaster relief operations organized by the State Council, the department of the State Council in charge of the operations may file a request to the General Staff Headquarters. If the PLA is needed in such operations organized by the people's governments at or above the county level, the latter may file a request via local military organs at the corresponding level. However, in case of emergency the local people's governments may directly request PLA units stationed in the area to provide assistance, and the latter must take immediate action and simultaneously report to the higher authorities, according to the regulations. Upon detecting any hazard or disaster, local PLA units must also take immediate action and simultaneously report to the higher authorities. PLA units come under the unified leadership of the people's government when participating in local emergency rescue and disaster relief operations. Their specific tasks are assigned by the headquarters for the operations, while their actions are directed through the military chain of command. In November 2006 the CMC approved and issued the Master Scenario for Emergency Response.
In the past two years the PLA and the PAPF have dispatched a total of 600,000 troops/time, employed 630,000 vehicles (or machines)/time of various types, flown over 6,500 sorties/time (including the use of helicopters), mobilized 1.39 million militiamen and reservists/time, participated in over 130 disaster relief operations in cases of floods, earthquakes, snowstorms, typhoons and fires, and rescued or evacuated a total of 10 million people.
In January 2008 large areas of southern China were stricken by a savage spell of freezing weather, sleet and snowstorms. The PLA and the PAPF sent 224,000 troops and 1.036 million militiamen and reservists, and flew 226 sorties/time (using military transport aircraft and helicopters) to undertake urgent, difficult, dangerous and heavy tasks, such as clearing major lines of communication, rescuing victims and restoring power supply.
On May 12, 2008 an earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale rocked Wenchuan County, Sichuan Province. In response, the PLA and the PAPF deployed 146,000 troops, mobilized 75,000 militiamen and reservists, flew over 4,700 sorties/time (including the use of helicopters) and employed 533,000 vehicles/time in the relief effort. They rescued 3,338 survivors, evacuated 1.4 million local residents, and transported, airlifted and air-dropped 1.574 million tons of relief materials. They sent 210 teams of medical workers, psychotherapists, and sanitation and epidemic prevention specialists, and treated 1.367 million injured people. The troops strictly observed discipline, and kept detailed records of hundreds of millions of yuan in cash and large quantities of valuables recovered from the debris, all of which was handed over to the owners or relevant departments of local governments.
Participating in Olympic Security Work and Supporting the Preparations for the Olympics
At the request of the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, the PLA and the PAPF actively participated in Olympic security work, and supported preparations for the Olympics and Paralympics, making important contributions to the success of the events.
In security work for the Olympics, the main responsibilities of the PLA were to ensure the air security of venues in and outside Beijing and the maritime security of Olympic venues in coastal and neighboring areas; take part in the handling of terrorist incidents such as NBC (nuclear, biological, and chemical) terrorist attacks and explosions; provide intelligence support; organize emergency rescue, medical aid and helicopter transportation; and strengthen border administration and control during the Olympics. The PLA contributed 46,000 troops, 98 fixed-wing aircraft, 60 helicopters, 63 ships, and some ground-to-air missiles, and radar, chemical defense and engineering support equipment. The PAPF was mainly responsible for ensuring the security of the torch relay; guarding Olympic venues, VIP residences and relevant airports; carrying out guard duties for the opening and closing ceremonies, the activities of important foreign guests in China and major sports events; protecting water, power, oil and gas supply facilities and communication hubs closely related to the Olympics as well as the launching sites of rockets used for artificial rainfall control in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei; acting in collaboration with public security organs to set up checkpoints in the neighborhood of Olympic venues and on major roads in the vicinity of Beijing, and to perform armed patrols in important public places in cities hosting or co-hosting the Olympics; conducting security checks at Olympic venues; and executing counter-terrorism, anti-hijacking and contingency response operations. The PAPF contributed 85,000 troops to Olympic security work, appropriately handled nearly 300 incidents which might have endangered guarded targets, and confiscated over 9,000 prohibited items and over 140,000 limited items.
To support the preparations for the Olympics, the PLA and the PAPF contributed over 14,000 professional and amateur performers to the opening and closing ceremonies of the Olympics and Paralympics. Over 6,900 volunteers from the PLA and the PAPF undertook 84 kinds of support tasks, including transport support, flag raising at medal presentation ceremonies, medical aid and various services at Olympic venues. PLA and PAPF units stationed in Beijing mobilized 670,000 troops/time to take part in the construction of 36 key Olympic projects, such as the Aviation Corridor of the Beijing Capital International Airport and the National Olympic Forest Park.
Participating in and Supporting National Construction
Under the unified arrangement of the Central People's Government and local people's governments at all levels, the PLA and the PAPF actively participate in all aspects of national construction. In the past two years they have put over 14 million workdays and one million vehicles (or machines)/time into this endeavor.
Providing aid for construction of infrastructure and ecological projects. The PLA and the PAPF have supported over 200 key construction projects for energy, transportation, hydropower and communications. They have taken part in over 170 projects for the protection of the ecological environment at such places as the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River and sources of sandstorms affecting Beijing and Tianjin. They have afforested three million mu (one mu is about 700 sq m) of barren hills, wasteland and desolate beaches, and provided aerial protection and maintenance for 24 million mu of forests.
Participating in the building of a new countryside. The PLA and the PAPF provide support for the construction of irrigation and water-conservancy works and rural infrastructure. They have built or repaired over 2,100 roads in poverty-stricken rural areas, and completed over 90,000 small construction projects such as rural hydropower projects, drinking water projects for both people and livestock, and projects for the improvement of small river valley areas. They have also set up or consolidated 25,000 places of contact for poverty reduction, and helped over 80,000 households out of poverty.
Supporting scientific and technological, educational, cultural and health undertakings. The PLA and the PAPF have helped to train nearly 10,000 people in various skills, and set up 240 science and technology demonstration centers. They have built over 200 primary and secondary schools, and helped 240,000 poor students complete their schooling. They have established long-term assistance relations with 470 county or township hospitals in poverty-stricken areas, and dispatched 13,000 medical teams offering free medical consultation and treatment in 41 million cases.
Supporting the economic and social development of areas inhabited by ethnic minorities. The PLA and the PAPF have helped to build or enlarge three airports, five power stations and 12 water conservancy facilities; repair over 900 km of highways; dig 300 wells; and build a total of 6,000 small rainwater cellars, small power stations, solar energy installations and TV transmission facilities.
Supporting National Defense and Armed Forces Modernization
Governments at all levels put great importance on providing support for the modernization of the armed forces in science and technology, information, human resources, education and culture. Local governments and military units jointly organize meetings on military issues, work concerning the "Two Supports" and informal discussions, in order to help the units overcome difficulties in military training, infrastructure building and the maintenance of servicemen's rights and interests. When the units engage in major tasks such as training exercises, emergency rescue and disaster relief, the local governments and people will surmount all difficulties and provide support for their assembly, movement, and rescue and relief efforts. Conducting widespread activities to support the armed forces in science and technology, and education and culture, local governments and people all over the country have set up over 2,000 centers of science and technology, helped to train people on 100,000 occasions in various skills and donated20 million books. Governments at all levels make proper arrangements for the resettlement of servicemen discharged form active service, their dependents, retirees and civilians working in the armed forces, and take good care of those entitled to compensation and preferential treatment. In the past two years, governments at all levels have made over 500 relevant national and local policies and regulations, and resettled over 100,000 officers transferred to civilian work, over 500,000 demobilized enlisted men, and over 60,000 retired officers and civilians working in the armed forces.
China is accelerating reform and innovation in its defense-related science, technology and industry, promoting strategic and specialization-oriented restructuring of defense industry enterprises, enhancing the capabilities of independent innovation in the R&D of weaponry and equipment, and striving to establish a new system of defense-related science, technology and industry which caters to both military and civilian needs, and channels military potential to civilian use.
Promoting Innovation in Structures and Mechanisms
To meet the needs of weaponry and equipment development, as well as development of the socialist market economy, China is constantly reforming its management system of defense-related science, technology and industry. According to the Plan for Restructuring the State Council passed by the First Session of the Eleventh National People's Congress in 2008, the Science, Technology and Industry Commission for National Defense of the People's Republic of China has been superseded by the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense.
In 2007, the State Council approved Some Opinions on Deepening the Reform of the Investment System of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense, which explicitly proposes a new investment system featuring effective government regulation and control, participation of social capital, standardized intermediary services, vigorous supervision and management, and positive military-civilian interaction. As a result, an open development pattern for defense-related science, technology and industry is taking shape. The investment field has been further broadened, and investment structure further optimized. Ways of investment have been diversified to include not only direct investment, but also injection of capital and investment subsidies.
China is speeding up the transformation of the structures and mechanisms of the defense industry enterprises, and is in the initial stage of establishing a new system of defense-related science, technology and industry that features a small core, extensive cooperation and a large military potential reserve among civilians. Structural contradictions in defense-related science, technology and industry have been gradually and fundamentally solved through strategic restructuring and the streamlining of the main body of the defense industry. China is steadily promoting the transformation of defense industry enterprises into joint-stock enterprises, actively exploring approaches to diversifying the structure of property rights, giving priority on helping qualified competitive enterprises to be reorganized and listed on the stock market, and encouraging specialization-oriented restructuring and the integration of the efforts of enterprises, universities and research institutes. Relevant laws and regulations have been improved to standardize and supervise the process of reorganizing the defense industry enterprises and getting them listed on the stock market.
Improving the Weaponry and Equipment Research and Production System
Establishing a sound licensing system for weaponry and equipment research and production. In accordance with the Implementation Measures for Weaponry and Equipment Research and Production Licensing promulgated in May 2005, the defense-related science, technology and industry has adopted a licensing system for weaponry and equipment research and production featuring management of categorization. While maintaining state control over weaponry and equipment research and production, the document allows the non-public sector to enter this field and compete for research and production projects. In March 2008 the State Council and the CMC issued the Regulations on the Licensing Administration of Weaponry and Equipment Research and Production, further improving the system.
Enhancing the basic capabilities of weaponry and equipment research and production. Defense-related science, technology and industry are striving to enhance the informationization of weaponry and equipment design and development, and to render product design more digitalized, modularized, standardized and reliable. It has built digital simulation and hardware-in-the-loop(HIL) simulation facilities and a number of important advanced experimentation and demonstration facilities, which has resulted in a higher design capability and R&D success rate.
This sector has also increased final assembly and integration capabilities, and a number of key enterprises have realized systems integration of assembly, experimentation and testing. This has substantially raised core manufacturing capabilities by giving priority to resolving processing and technical issues in complex parts processing, precision manufacturing and special welding. In addition, a number of large-scale basic experimentation facilities serving the entire industry have been constructed, as well as specialized testing and experimentation centers for reliability testing and burn-in screening of components and parts, and improved measures, standards and other basic support conditions for defense industries have been put in place. With the improvement of basic capabilities, a leapfrogging development in the ability to provide weaponry and equipment has been achieved.
Building a dynamic innovation system for defense-related science, technology and industry. The government has taken the lead to create a favorable environment for innovation and guide innovation activities through policies and investments. With the research institutes and enterprises of the defense industry as the backbone and with institutes for basic research and institutions of higher learning as a vital new force, China is giving full play to the advantages of integrating enterprises, universities and research institutes, and making efforts to increase its capability for independent innovation in defense-related science, technology and industry. To consolidate the foundation of human resources for the innovative development of defense-related science, technology and industry, both the national major projects of science and technology and important projects for defense scientific research and weaponry and equipment R&D have been taken as platforms to identify, cultivate, employ and attract talented people.
Enhancing Cooperation with Other Countries
Following the principles of mutual benefit and common development, China is conducting cooperation with foreign countries in defense-related science, technology and industry. It emphasizes exchanges and cooperation with developed countries in defense industry technology to draw on their experience in technological development and management. It enhances mutually beneficial cooperation with developing countries, and engages in joint R&D and production in major cooperative projects, in accordance with the national conditions and specific requirements of the partners. On the export of military items, it adheres to the following principles: It should only serve the purpose of helping the recipient state enhance its capability for legitimate self-defense; it must not impair peace, security and stability of the relevant region or the world as a whole; and it must not be used to interfere in the recipient state's internal affairs.
China's defense-related science, technology and industry actively conduct cooperation with other countries in the field of hi-tech industries, combining military and civilian needs, and makes great efforts to develop hi-tech civilian products with high added value. Major breakthroughs have been made in developing the international market for space products. China has exported its first satellite; and the earth resources satellite project with Brazil has played an important role in both countries' economic development. China has significantly enhanced its cooperation with other countries in aviation products and technologies, and made new headway in developing the international market for civil aircraft. China's shipbuilding industry has exported products for civil use in series and batches, further increasing its share in the international market for such products.
Guided by the principle that defense expenditure should grow inline with the demands of national defense and economic development, the Chinese government decides on the size of defense expenditure in an appropriate way, and takes a road of national defense and armed forces modernization featuring lower cost and higher efficiency.
In the past three decades of reform and opening up, China has insisted that defense development should be both subordinated to and in the service of the country's overall economic development, and that the former should be coordinated with the latter. As a result, defense expenditure has always been kept at a reasonable and appropriate level. From 1978 to 1987, as the nation shifted its focus to economic development, national defense received a low input and was in a state of bare sustenance. During this period the average annual increase of defense expenditure was 3.5 percent, while that of GDP was 14.1 percent and that of the state financial expenditure was 10.4 percent. The shares of China's annual defense expenditure in its GDP and in the state financial expenditure dropped respectively from 4.6 percent and 14.96 percent in 1978 to1.74 percent and 9.27 percent in 1987. From 1988 to 1997, to make up for the inadequacy of defense development and maintain national security and unity, China gradually increased its defense expenditure on the basis of its sustained economic growth. During this period the average annual increase of defense expenditure was14.5 percent while that of GDP was 20.7 percent and that of the state financial expenditure was 15.1 percent. The shares of China's annual defense expenditure in its GDP and in the state financial expenditure continued to drop. From 1998 to 2007, to maintain national security and development and meet the requirements of the RMA with Chinese characteristics, China continued to increase its defense expenditure steadily on the basis of its rapid economic growth. During this period, the average annual increase of defense expenditure was 15.9 percent, while that of GDP was 12.5 percent and that of the state financial expenditure was 18.4 percent. Although the share of China's defense expenditure in its GDP increased, that in the state financial expenditure continued to drop on the whole.
China's GDP was RMB 21,192.3 billion in 2006 and RMB 25,730.6 billion in 2007. The state financial expenditure was RMB 4,042.273 billion in 2006 and RMB 4,978.135 billion in 2007, up 19.1 percent and 23.2 percent respectively over the previous year. China's defense expenditure was RMB 297.938 billion in 2006 and RMB 355.491 billion in 2007, up 20.4 percent and 19.3 percent respectively over the previous year. The shares of China's annual defense expenditure in its GDP and in the state financial expenditure in 2006 were roughly the same as those in 2007, being 1.41 percent and 7.37 percent in 2006 and 1.38 percent and 7.14 percent in 2007. China's defense expenditure mainly comprises expenses for personnel, training and maintenance, and equipment. Expenses for personnel and training and maintenance account for two thirds of the defense expenditure. In 2007, the defense expenditure was used to cover the expenses of the active force (RMB 343.439 billion), the reserve force (RMB 3.693 billion) and the militia (RMB 8.359 billion). China's defense budget for 2008 is RMB 417.769 billion.
In the past two years, the increased part of China's defense expenditure has primarily been used for the following purposes: (1) Increasing the salaries and benefits of servicemen. Along with the rise of the income of civil servants and the living standards of both urban and rural residents, China has increased the relevant allowances and subsidies of servicemen to ensure the parallel improvement of their living standards. (2) Compensating for price rises. With the rise of the prices of food, building materials, fuel, etc., China has accordingly increased the boarding subsidies and other funds closely related to servicemen's life as well as the expenses on education, training, petroleum, oils and lubricants for the armed forces, and improved the working and living conditions of border and coastal defense forces, units in remote and tough areas, and grass-roots units. (3) Pushing forward the RMA. China has augmented the input into military informationization and moderately increased the funds for equipment and supporting facilities, so as to raise the defense capabilities in conditions of informationization.
Both the total amount and per-service-person share of China's defense expenditure remain lower than those of some major powers. In 2007 China's defense expenditure equaled 7.51 percent of that of the United States, 62.43 percent of that of the United Kingdom. China's defense expenses per service person amounted to 4.49 percent of that of the United States, 11.3 percent of that of Japan, 5.31 percent of that of the United Kingdom, 15.76 percent of that of France and 14.33 percent of that of Germany. As for the share of defense expenditure in GDP, that of China was merely 1.38percent, while that of the United States was 4.5 percent, that of the United Kingdom 2.7 percent, and that of France 1.92 percent.
The Chinese government has established defense expenditure reporting and publishing mechanisms. Since 1978 the Chinese government has submitted a financial budget report to the NPC and published the total amount of the defense budget each year. The relevant data of China's defense expenditure has been made public in the China Economy Yearbook since 1981, and in the China Finance Yearbook since 1992. And since 1995 the composition and main purposes of China's defense expenditure have been published in the form of government white papers.
XIII. International Security Cooperation
China persists in developing friendly relations, enhancing political mutual trust, conducting security cooperation and maintaining common security with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence.
Regional Security Cooperation
The Chinese government is actively involved in multilateral cooperation within the framework of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). At the Bishkek Summit in August 2007 the SCO member states concluded the Treaty on Long-Term Good-Neighborly Relations, Friendship and Cooperation, laying a solid political and legal foundation for security cooperation and ushering in a new phase of political mutual trust among the member states. Over the past two years, the member states have also signed the Agreement on Conducting Joint Military Exercises, the Agreement on Cooperation of Defense Ministries and the Agreement of SCO Governments on Cooperation in Combating the Illegal Circulation of Weapons, Ammunition and Explosives, finalized such legal documents as the Agreement on the Training of Counter-Terrorism Professionals, and launched cooperation in such new areas as information security by formulating the Action Plan to Ensure International Information Security. Procurators-general, heads of supreme courts, defense ministers, and leaders of law enforcement and security agencies from the member states have regularly held meetings, deepening cooperation in the justice, defense, law enforcement, security and other fields.
China attaches great importance to the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). At the 14th ARF Ministerial Meeting in August 2007 China stressed that the new security concept is based on the diversity and common interests of the Asia-Pacific region, and accords with the inherent law and requirements of the region's pursuit of peace, development, progress and prosperity. In the past two years China has co-hosted with Indonesia and Thailand respectively the ARF Round Table Discussion on Stocktaking of Maritime Security Issues and the ARF Seminar on Narcotics Control. The ARF General Guidelines for Disaster Relief Cooperation proposed and drafted by China was adopted at the 14th ARF Ministerial Meeting, making it the first ARF framework document providing guidance for disaster relief cooperation.
China-ASEAN and ASEAN Plus Three (China, Japan and the Republic of Korea) cooperation in non-traditional security fields is developing in depth. At the China-ASEAN Summit and the ASEAN Plus Three Summit, held respectively in January and November 2007,China put forward a series of initiatives for strengthening cooperation in non-traditional security fields, and emphasized the importance of conducting institutionalized defense cooperation and military exchanges. China hosted the First China-ASEAN Dialogue between Senior Defense Scholars (CADSDS) in March 2008 and the Second ASEAN Plus Three Workshop on Disaster Relief by Armed Forces in June 2008.
Participating in UN Peacekeeping Operations
As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China has consistently supported and actively participated in the peacekeeping operations consonant with the spirit of the UN Charter. Since 1990 the PLA has sent 11,063 military personnel/time to participate in 18 UN peacekeeping operations. Eight lost their lives on duty. As of the end of November 2008, China had 1,949 military peacekeeping personnel serving in nine UN mission areas and the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Among them, there were 88 military observers and staff officers; 175 engineering troops and 43 medical personnel for the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (UNMONUC); 275 engineering troops, 240 transportation troops and 43 medical personnel for the United Nations Mission in Liberia(UNMIL); 275 engineering troops, 100 transportation troops and 60 medical personnel for the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS); 275 engineering troops and 60 medical personnel for the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL); and 315 engineering troops for the African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID). Since 2000, China has sent 1,379 peacekeeping policeman/time to seven mission areas. At present, 208 Chinese peacekeeping policemen are in Liberia, Kosovo, Haiti, Sudan and East Timor for peacekeeping operations.
Military Exchanges and Cooperation with Other Countries
Implementing the nation's foreign policy, the PLA develops cooperative military relations with other countries that are non-aligned, non-confrontational and not directed against any third party, and engages in various forms of military exchanges and cooperation in an effort to create a military security environment featuring mutual trust and mutual benefit.
Creating a new situation in military diplomacy which is open, practical and dynamic. China has established military ties with over 150 countries, and has military attach offices in 109 countries. A total of 98 countries have military attach offices in China. In the past two years senior PLA delegations have visited more than 40 countries, and defense ministers and chiefs of the general staff from more than 60 countries have visited China. Practical cooperation between the military forces of China and Russia at various levels and in multiple fields has continued to develop in depth. The military forces of the two sides have deepened their strategic mutual confidence and held frequent exchanges of high-level visits. The defense ministers of the two countries have a direct telephone link, which is the first of its kind between China and another country. China-US military relations have made gradual progress. The two countries have formally established a telephone link between China's Ministry of National Defense and the U.S. Department of Defense, held the first exchange of their NCOs, and formally launched military archive cooperation on information relating to U.S. military personnel missing in action around the period of the Korean War. Meanwhile, China-Japan defense relations have made headway. The two sides have held the seventh and eighth China-Japan Defense and Security Consultation, made their first exchange of port calls by naval ships, and held the first consultation over the establishment of a maritime liaison mechanism between their teams of experts. China's defense exchanges with its neighbors, including ASEAN, India and Pakistan, have been further expanded. China has begun to hold defense and security consultations with India. The channels of communication between the defense sectors and military forces of China and European countries remain open. China's military cooperation with developing countries has been strengthened.
Actively holding bilateral or multilateral joint military exercises with other countries. Since 2007 China has held over 20 joint military exercises or joint training exercises with a score of countries. In August 2007, within the framework of the SCO, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan held a joint counter-terrorism military exercise in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, and Chelyabinsk, Russia, focusing on the task of combating terrorism, separatism and extremism. This was the first time for the PLA to participate in a major land-air joint exercise outside the Chinese territory. In July 2007 and July 2008 China and Thailand conducted joint counter-terrorism training involving both countries' army special operations respectively in Guangzhou, China, and Chiang Mai, Thailand. In December 2007 and December 2008, armies of China and India staged joint counter-terrorism training exercises respectively in Kunming, China and Belgaum, India. During the past two years, the Chinese Navy has held bilateral joint maritime training exercises with the navies of 14 countries, including Russia, the United Kingdom, France, the United States, Pakistan, India and South Africa. China has also conducted various forms of multilateral joint maritime training exercises with relevant countries, focusing on various tasks. In March 2007, China held the "Peace-2007" joint maritime training exercise in the Arabian Sea with seven other countries, including Pakistan. In May 2007 China and eight other countries, including Singapore, conducted a multilateral joint maritime exercise in Singaporean waters within the framework of the Western Pacific Naval Symposium (WPNS). In October the same year China, Australia and New Zealand staged a joint maritime search-and-rescue training exercise in the Tasman Sea.
Conducting cooperation and exchanges in personnel development. China is sending an increasing number of military students overseas. In the past two years it has sent over 900 military students to more than 30 countries. Twenty military educational institutions in China have established and maintained inter-collegiate exchange relations with their counterparts in over 20 countries, including the United States, Russia, Japan and Pakistan. Meanwhile, some 4,000 military personnel from more than 130 countries have come to China to study at Chinese military educational institutions.
To further military exchanges and cooperation, and enhance mutual military confidence, China's Ministry of National Defense officially set up an spokesperson system in May 2008. The newly-founded Information Office of the Ministry of National Defense of the PRC releases important military information through regular or irregular press conferences and written statements.
The Chinese government has always attached importance to and been supportive of international efforts in the field of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. China has taken concrete measures to faithfully fulfill its relevant international obligations. China is committed to, along with the international community, consolidating and strengthening the existing international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation mechanisms pursuant to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and other universally recognized norms governing international relations, and to the preservation of international strategic stability and promotion of the common security of all countries.
China holds that all nuclear-weapon states should make an unequivocal commitment to the thorough destruction of nuclear weapons, undertake to stop research into and development of new types of nuclear weapons, and reduce the role of nuclear weapons in their national security policy. The two countries possessing the largest nuclear arsenals bear special and primary responsibility for nuclear disarmament. They should earnestly comply with the relevant agreements already concluded, and further drastically reduce their nuclear arsenals in a verifiable and irreversible manner, so as to create the necessary conditions for the participation of other nuclear-weapon states in the process of nuclear disarmament.
China supports the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, and will continue to honor its moratorium commitment on nuclear testing. China supports the preparatory work for the entry into force of the Treaty by the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization, and has contributed to the establishment of the International Monitoring System (IMS).
China has always stayed true to its commitments that it will not be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time and in any circumstances, and will unconditionally not use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or in nuclear-weapon-free zones. China calls upon other nuclear-weapon states to make the same commitments and conclude an international legal instrument in this regard. China has already signed all relevant protocols which have been opened for signature of various nuclear-weapon-free zone treaties, and has reached agreement with the ASEAN on relevant issues of the Protocol of the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. China welcomes the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia signed by the five Central Asian countries.
China values the role of the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva, and supports efforts in the CD to reach a comprehensive and balanced program of work, so as to enable the CD to start substantial work on such issues as the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT), prevention of an arms race in outer space, nuclear disarmament and security assurance to non-nuclear-weapon states.
China maintains that the global missile defense program will be detrimental to strategic balance and stability, undermine international and regional security, and have a negative impact on the process of nuclear disarmament. China pays close attention to this issue.
Prohibition of Biological and Chemical Weapons
China observes in good faith its obligations under the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), and supports the multilateral efforts aimed at strengthening the effectiveness of the Convention. China has actively participated in the meetings of the parties to the Convention and the meetings of experts in a pragmatic manner. China has already established a comprehensive legislation system for the implementation of the Convention, set up a national implementation focal point, and submitted its declarations regarding confidence-building measures to the Implementation Support Unit of the Convention in a timely fashion. China has also strengthened bio-safety, bio-security and disease surveillance, and actively carried out related international exchanges and cooperation.
China earnestly fulfils its obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) by setting up implementation offices at both central and local levels, submitting timely and complete annual declarations, subsequent declarations regarding newly discovered chemical weapons abandoned by Japan in China and information on the national protection program. China has received more than 170 on-site inspections by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). The Analytical Chemistry Research Laboratory of the Institute of Chemical Defense became the first OPCW-designated laboratory in China in 1998, followed by the Toxicant Analysis Laboratory of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences, which became an OPCW-designated laboratory in 2007. In May 2008 China and the OPCW jointly held a training course on protection and assistance in Beijing. With a view to accelerating the destruction of chemical weapons abandoned by Japan in China, China has assisted Japan in carrying out more than 100 on-site investigations, and excavated more than 40,000 items of chemical weapons abandoned by Japan. China urges Japan to earnestly implement its obligations under the Convention, and start the actual destruction of chemical weapons abandoned by Japan in China as soon as possible.
China firmly opposes the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their means of delivery, and actively takes part in international non-proliferation efforts. China holds that an integrated approach should be adopted to address both the symptoms and root causes of proliferation. The international community should devote itself to building a global and regional security environment featuring stability, cooperation and mutual trust, and earnestly maintaining and strengthening the authority and effectiveness of the international non-proliferation regime. In this regard, double standards must be abandoned. All states should resort to dialogue and negotiation to resolve differences in the field of non-proliferation. The relations between non-proliferation and the peaceful use of science and technology should be properly addressed, with the aim of preserving the right of peaceful use of each state while effectively preventing WMD proliferation.
China has joined all international treaties and international organizations in the field of non-proliferation. It attaches great importance to the role of the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) in preventing the proliferation of WMD. China supports the role played by the UN in the field of non-proliferation, and has conscientiously implemented the relevant resolutions of the UN Security Council.
China is dedicated to the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula, and firmly promotes the Six-Party Talks process on that issue. China facilitated the adoption of "Initial Actions for the Implementation of the Joint Statement" and the "Second-Phase Actions for the Implementation of the Joint Statement" respectively in February and October 2007.
China maintains that the Iranian nuclear issue should be resolved peacefully by political and diplomatic means. China has participated in the meetings of foreign ministers or political directors of the ministries of foreign affairs, and hosted a meeting of political directors of the ministries of foreign affairs of those six countries in Shanghai in April 2008. China has also actively taken part in the deliberation on the Iranian nuclear issue at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the UN Security Council, playing a constructive role.
China attaches great importance to non-proliferation export control, and has established a comprehensive legal system for export control of nuclear, biological, chemical and missile and related dual-use items and technologies. China has also constantly updated these laws and regulations in light of its international obligations and the need for export control. China amended the Regulations of the PRC on the Control of Nuclear Exports in November 2006, the Regulations of the PRC on the Control of Dual-Use Nuclear Items and Related Technologies Exports in January2007 and its Control List in July of the same year. China has spared no effort in strengthening law enforcement in the field of non-proliferation export control.
China values and actively carries out international exchanges and cooperation in the field of non-proliferation and export control. China has held regular arms control and non-proliferation consultations with a dozen countries and the EU, and non-proliferation dialogues with NATO. China also maintains dialogues and exchanges with multinational export control regimes such as the Australia Group and the Wassenaar Arrangement.
China supports the objectives and principles of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. As one of the original partners of the Initiative, China has taken part in all meetings of the partners. In December 2007 China and the United States jointly held a workshop in Beijing on radiation emergency response within the framework of the Initiative.
Prevention of the Introduction of Weapons and an Arms Race in Outer Space
The Chinese government has all along advocated the peaceful use of outer space, and opposed the introduction of weapons and an arms race in outer space. The existing international legal instruments concerning outer space are not sufficient to effectively prevent the spread of weapons to outer space. The international community should negotiate and conclude a new international legal instrument to close the loopholes in the existing legal system concerning outer space.
In February 2008 China and Russia jointly submitted to the CD a draft Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space and the Threat or Use of Force against Outer Space Objects. China hopes that the CD will start substantial discussions on the draft as soon as possible, and negotiate and conclude the Treaty at an early date.
Conventional Arms Control
China has earnestly fulfilled its obligations under the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Protocols. It has taken concrete measures to ensure that its anti-personnel landmines in service meet the relevant technical requirements of the Amended Protocol on Landmines. China actively participates in the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on Cluster Munitions. China is also continuing its preparations for ratifying the Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War. China has continuously taken an active part in international humanitarian de-mining assistance. In the past two years, it has held de-mining training courses for Angola, Mozambique, Chad, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, and both northern and southern Sudan. China has also donated de-mining equipment to the above-mentioned countries and Egypt, and provided Peru, Ecuador and Ethiopia with mine eradication funds.
China has actively participated in the international efforts to combat the illicit trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW). It has conscientiously implemented the UN Program of Action (PoA) on SALW and the International Instrument on Identifying and Tracing Illicit SALW. China has issued and implemented new detailed rules on SALW markings, and has taken part in the work of the UN GGE on an "Arms Trade Treaty."
Transparency in Military Expenditures and Registration of Transfer of Conventional Arms
China attaches great importance to military transparency, and makes unremitting efforts to enhance military transparency and promote mutual trust with other countries in the military sphere. In 2007 China joined the UN Standardized Instrument for Reporting Military Expenditures, and reports annually to the UN the basic data of its military expenditures for the latest fiscal year.
China has made important contributions to the establishment and development of the UN Register of Conventional Arms. After the Register was established, China provided the Register with annual data on imports and exports of conventional arms in the seven categories covered by the Register. However, since 1996 a particular country has provided data on its arms sales to Taiwan to the Register, which contradicts the spirit of the relevant Resolutions of the UN General Assembly as well as the objectives and principles of the Register. China was impelled to suspend its submission of data to the Register. Since the country concerned has stopped the above-mentioned act, China has resumed, since 2007, submitting data annually to the Register on imports and exports of conventional arms in the seven categories.