A food safety factory shutdown has Americans hunting for baby formula. Readying themselves for a covid-19 lockdown, Chinese in Beijing emptied store shelves. Emerging from lockdown, some in Shanghai are visiting well-provisioned markets. U.S.-China agricultural trade is booming, but many are still being left hungry. Food security, sustainability and safety remain issues.
PRC State Council, China and the European Union, April 1, 2014
China's Policy Paper on the EU: Deepen the China-EU Comprehensive Strategic Partnership for Mutual Benefit and Win-win Cooperation
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Over the past decade since the release of China's first policy paper on the European Union (EU) by the Chinese government in October 2003, the China-EU Comprehensive Strategic Partnership has made important headway. Guided by the annual China-EU Summit and focusing on the three pillars of political, economic and people-to-people exchanges, China and the EU have promoted all-dimensional, multi-tiered and wide-ranging cooperation to deepen the Comprehensive Strategic Partnership. China is the EU's second largest trading partner. The EU has been China's top trading partner for 10 years. The annual trade volume has exceeded 550 billion US dollars and there have been over 5 million visits between the two sides each year. China and the EU have worked together to tackle the international financial crisis and advance global governance reform, stepped up communication and coordination on major international and regional issues, and contributed significantly to world peace, development and cooperation. The first China's EU Policy Paper, which has been implemented effectively, has played an important role in guiding the development of China-EU relations.
At a crucial moment when the China-EU Comprehensive Strategic Partnership enters its second decade, the Chinese government releases its second EU policy paper to define its EU policy objectives in the new era, draw a blueprint for China-EU cooperation in the next 5 to 10 years and facilitate greater progress in China-EU relations based on a review of the achievements in China-EU relations in the past decade and in the context of international and domestic developments.
I. Seize the Opportunity to Deepen the China-EU Comprehensive Strategic Partnership for Mutual Benefit and Win-win Cooperation
In the decade since China issued the first China's EU Policy Paper, tremendous changes have taken place in China, the EU and the world as a whole. Multi-polarity and economic globalization have deepened; cultural diversity and IT application have been enhanced; the overall strength of emerging markets and developing countries has been growing; countries have become more interdependent with their interests more intertwined; and peace, development and win-win cooperation have become the trend of our time. But the world is still far from being tranquil. Destabilizing factors and uncertainties affecting world peace and development are on the rise.
With the significant growth of its overall strength, China is playing an important role in major international and regional affairs. But China remains a developing country that suffers from severe lack of balance, coordination and sustainability in its development. On the domestic front, China is committed to comprehensively deepening reform to make the country a moderately prosperous society in all respects. Internationally, China pursues a greater opening-up and peaceful development. It works to build an open world economy and a new type of international relations featuring equality, mutual trust, inclusiveness, mutual learning and win-win cooperation, with a view to contributing more to world peace and common development.
Due to the impact of the international financial crisis, the EU is facing the most serious challenge since the end of the Cold War and has to urgently address a series of deep-seated structural and systemic issues. But its strategic direction of integration remains unchanged. With the efforts of steady enlargement and accelerated structural reform, the EU has worked hard to advance economic, fiscal, financial and political integration. A 28-member EU, the biggest economy in the world with strong overall strength, continues to be a global player of great strategic importance and a key part in the evolving international landscape.
China and the EU, the world's most representative emerging economy and group of developed countries respectively, are two major forces for world peace as they share important strategic consensus on building a multi-polar world. The combined economic aggregate of China and the EU accounts for one third of the world economy, making them two major markets for common development. Being an important representative of the oriental culture and the cradle of western culture and with a combined population accounting for a quarter of the world's total, China and the EU stand as two major civilizations advancing human progress. With no fundamental conflict of interests, China and the EU have far more agreement than differences. Both sides are at a crucial stage of reform and development and China-EU relations face new historic opportunities. Deepening the China-EU Comprehensive Strategic Partnership for Mutual Benefit and Win-win Cooperation will provide impetus to the development of China and the EU and contribute to peace and prosperity of the world.
II. China's EU Policy in the New Era
The EU is China's important strategic partner in China's efforts to pursue peaceful development and multi-polarity of the world and a key party that China can work with to achieve industrialization, urbanization, IT application and agricultural modernization as well as its "two centenary goals". To grow China-EU relations is an integral part of China's efforts to build long-term, steady and healthy relations with major powers and a priority in its foreign policy. The Chinese government places high importance on the status and role of the EU, and is committed to working with the EU and its member states to fully implement the China-EU 2020 Strategic Agenda for Cooperation in the course of comprehensive deepening of reform in China and economic recovery in Europe, build partnerships for peace, growth, reform and civilization and further increase the global impact of China-EU relations.
-- China-EU partnership for peace: China stands ready to work with the EU to bring the two major forces closer to pursue peaceful development in a multi-polar world, respect and accommodate each other's core interests and major concerns, make the international order and international system more just and equitable, advocate democracy in international relations and create a peaceful, stable, equitable and orderly development environment for all countries.
-- China-EU partnership for growth: China stands ready to work with the EU to bring the two major markets closer to build a China-EU community of interests, strengthen the bond of interests between the two sides at the global strategic, regional and bilateral levels, carry out win-win cooperation at higher levels and contribute more to the building of an open world economy.
-- China-EU partnership for reform: China stands ready to work with the EU to better align China's comprehensive deepening of reform with the EU's reform and readjustment, draw upon each other's reform experience, share reform dividends, jointly improve the ability of reform and governance, and actively participate in the formulation and reform of the rules of global governance.
-- China-EU partnership for civilization: China stands ready to work with the EU to bring the two major civilizations in the East and West closer and set an example of different civilizations seeking harmony without uniformity, promoting diversity, learning from each other and enjoying common prosperity.
Given the differences in history, cultural tradition, political system and stage of economic development as well as the increasing competition between China and the EU in some sectors in recent years, the two sides have disagreements and frictions on issues of value such as human rights as well as economic and trade issues. China believes that these issues should be properly handled through dialogue in the spirit of equality and mutual respect and encourages the EU to move in the same direction.
III. Cooperation in the Political Field
1. Deepening High-Level Exchanges and Political Dialogue
China will step up high-level exchanges and political dialogue with EU institutions and member states and further improve the structure of all-dimensional, multi-tiered and wide-ranging China-EU dialogue and cooperation. Both sides should give full play to the role of the China-EU Summit in providing political guidance to the China-EU relations, and make use of the China-EU High-Level Strategic Dialogue for communication and coordination over China-EU relations and major international and regional issues of mutual interest.
2. Strengthening Coordination and Cooperation in International Affairs
Strengthen consultation on international affairs, jointly work for political solutions to international and regional hotspot issues and uphold peace and stability.
Commit to jointly upholding the authority of the United Nations (UN), safeguard the victory of WWII and the postwar international order, support the UN in playing its lead role in upholding world peace, promoting common development and advancing international cooperation, support reforms of the UN and uphold international fairness and justice. Step up exchange in UN peacekeeping activities and promote cooperation between the two sides through personnel training and experience sharing.
Deepen exchange and cooperation in the framework of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM), promote equality, mutual trust and practical cooperation between Asia and Europe, and enhance the role and influence of ASEM in upholding world peace and regional stability, promoting world economic recovery and sustainable development and working for solutions to global issues.
Step up macroeconomic policy coordination within the G20, commit to jointly working for a bigger role of the G20 in international economic and financial affairs as the premier forum for international economic cooperation. Encourage the G20 to build closer partnerships, commit to reforms of the international monetary and financial systems, promote trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, oppose protectionism and maintain and develop an open world economy.
Commit to jointly advancing international efforts to attain the Millennium Development Goals, eliminate poverty and achieve sustainable development with a view to realizing common development and prosperity.
Further strengthen policy dialogue and practical cooperation on climate change and promote positive progress in international cooperation on climate change based on the principle of equity, "common but differentiated responsibilities" and the respective capability of the two sides.
Step up counter-terrorism exchanges and cooperation based on the principle of mutual respect and equal-footed cooperation, oppose "double standards" on counter-terrorism and work for continued progress in international counter-terrorism cooperation.
Jointly promote international cooperation in escort missions, actively carry out cooperation in escort missions for World Food Program vessels, intelligence and personnel information exchanges between escort fleets of the two sides and joint counter-piracy exercises, and jointly safeguard peace in the Gulf of Aden and waters off the Somali coast.
Commit to jointly upholding the authority of the multilateral disarmament regime and support the adoption of a comprehensive and balanced program of work at the Conference on Disarmament at an early date to carry out substantive work as soon as possible. Strengthen international nuclear security. Work to prevent weaponization and arms race in outer space and safeguard its peace and security. Step up exchanges and cooperation in the field of non-proliferation and export control.
Strengthen cybersecurity dialogue and cooperation and promote the building of a peaceful, secure, open and cooperative cyberspace. Facilitate practical cooperation between China and the EU in fighting cyber-crimes, emergency response to cybersecurity incidents and cyber capacity building through platforms such as the China-EU Cyber Taskforce and work together for the formulation of a code of conduct in cyberspace within the UN framework.
3. Enhancing Cooperation and Exchange Between Legislative Bodies and Political Parties
The Chinese side welcomes and supports more exchanges and cooperation with EU legislative bodies at various levels and through multiple channels, such as regular exchange mechanisms and bilateral friendship groups, on the basis of mutual respect, greater mutual understanding, seeking common ground while shelving differences and developing cooperation.
The Communist Party of China is ready to further deepen exchanges with political parties of European countries, political groups of the European Parliament and regional organizations of political parties in Europe in the spirit of "going beyond ideological differences and pursuing mutual understanding and cooperation", with a view to establishing a multi-tiered and multi-channel mechanism for cooperation and cement the political foundation of China-EU relations.
4. Expanding Defense and Security Cooperation
Step up personnel exchanges at various levels in the defense and security field between China and the EU, expand the area and scope of practical cooperation between the two sides, improve the dialogue mechanism on security policies and create conditions for gradually elevating the level of the dialogue.
The EU should lift its arms embargo on China at an early date.
5. Abiding by the One-China Principle
The Taiwan question concerns China's core interests. The one-China principle is an important political foundation of China-EU relations. Properly handling the Taiwan question is essential for the long-term and steady development of China-EU relations. The Chinese side appreciates the commitment of the EU and its member states to the one-China principle and hopes that the EU will respect China's major concerns regarding the Taiwan question, oppose "Taiwan independence" in any form, support peaceful development of cross-Strait relations and China's peaceful reunification and handle Taiwan-related questions with caution.
-- Exchanges between the EU and its member states and Taiwan should be strictly limited to nonofficial and people-to-people activities. Political figures of Taiwan should not be allowed to visit the EU or its member states under any pretext, and the EU and its member states should refrain from having any form of official exchanges or signing any official agreements with the Taiwan authorities.
-- China asks the EU and its member states not to support Taiwan's accession to any international organization whose membership requires statehood.
-- China asks the EU and its member states not to sell to Taiwan any weapons, or any equipment, materials or technologies that can be used for military purposes and not to carry out military exchanges or cooperation with Taiwan in any form.
6. Encouraging Hong Kong and Macao's Cooperation with the EU
The central government of China supports and encourages the governments of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) and the Macao SAR in developing mutually beneficial and friendly cooperation with the EU and its member states in accordance with the principle of "one country, two systems" and provisions of the Basic Laws in the two SARs.
7. Properly Handling Tibet-Related Issues
The Chinese side appreciates the position of the EU and its member states of recognizing Tibet as part of China's territory and not supporting "Tibet independence". The EU side should properly handle Tibet-related issues based on the principle of respecting China's sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity and non-interference in China's internal affairs, not allow leaders of the Dalai group to visit the EU or its member states under any capacity or pretext to engage in separatist activities, not arrange any form of contact with officials of the EU or its member states, and not provide any facilitation or support for anti-China separatist activities for "Tibet independence".
8. Continuing to Carry Out Human Rights Dialogue
The Chinese side is ready to continue human rights dialogue with the EU based on the principles of mutual respect and non-interference in internal affairs, and conduct human rights cooperation within the dialogue framework so as to increase mutual understanding and contribute to the development of China-EU relations and common progress in the human rights cause of China and the EU. The EU side should attach equal importance to all forms of human rights, including civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights and the right to development, view China's human rights situation in an objective and fair manner, stop using individual cases to interfere in China's judicial sovereignty and internal affairs, and to create a good atmosphere for human rights dialogue and cooperation between the two sides.
IV. Economic Cooperation and Trade
China views the EU as one of its most important trade and investment partners and hopes that both sides will contribute to the long-term, steady and in-depth development of their economic and trade relationship.
Continue to make use of the China-EU High-Level Economic and Trade Dialogue, the China-EU Economic and Trade Joint Committee and other mechanisms as a platform for policy coordination, promoting cooperation and addressing the concerns of both sides.
Actively advance negotiations of an investment agreement between China and the EU and strive to achieve an agreement as soon as possible to facilitate two-way investment. Start as soon as possible joint feasibility study on a China-EU FTA.
Enhance exchange and cooperation in the field of competition policy, further substantiate China-EU Competition Policy Dialogue, implement related cooperation document, jointly maintain a market order of fair competition and promote a sound market competition environment.
Actively explore new patterns of mutually beneficial development cooperation between China and the EU. Step up coordination and work actively for the success of the WTO Doha Round negotiations. The EU should commit to resolving economic and trade frictions with China through dialogue and consultation, act cautiously when resorting to trade remedy measures and create a good trade environment for the two sides. Strengthen cooperation on quality supervision, inspection and quarantine, make use of existing consultation mechanisms to resolve problems in bilateral trade in a timely and appropriate manner. China will continue to urge the EU to ease its restrictions on and facilitate high-tech product and technology export to China, so as to release the great potential of bilateral high-tech trade. Strengthen cooperation in the area of e-commerce between China and the EU.
Revise and improve the China-EU Customs Agreement and the Strategic Framework for China-EU Customs Cooperation under the guidance of the China-EU Joint Customs Cooperation Committee (JCCC), and intensify bilateral cooperation and multilateral coordination between respective customs authorities on IPR enforcement, supply chain security and facilitation, fighting commercial fraud and promoting trade facilitation.
V. Cooperation on Urbanization
Deepen the China-EU Urbanization Partnership and implement the Joint Declaration on the China-EU Partnership on Urbanization.
Continue to hold the China-EU Urbanization Partnership Forum and carry out exchanges on trends in urban development such as innovation, green city, smart city and cultural aspects.
Intensify cooperation on strategies and policies relevant to the development of urbanization, spatial distribution of urbanization, sustainable development of urban industrial economy, urban public services system, urban infrastructure investment and financing mechanisms, urban housing supply system and patterns, urban energy supply and demand management, urban mobility, public transport and smart transport, urban green buildings, urban ecological protection, environmental protection and treatment, protection of urban historical and cultural features and formation of urban landscape, urban governance, urban-rural integrated development, exchanges and discussions as well as personnel training on urbanization development.
Encourage the governments and enterprises of both sides to provide funding, technology and expertise for relevant programs and broaden the range of exchanges.
VI. Fiscal and Financial Cooperation
Strengthen the China-EU Economic and Financial Dialogue and the Working Group between the People' s Bank of China (PBoC) and the European Central Bank (ECB), expand exchanges on macro economic policy, conduct dialogue on government procurement, maintain close communication on international economic and financial hotspot issues and expand practical cooperation in economic and financial fields.
China welcomes financial institutions from EU member states to start business in China under relevant Chinese laws and regulations. China encourages Chinese securities institutions to enter the EU securities market when conditions are ripe and actively supports Chinese enterprises to get finance from the EU securities market. China hopes EU member states will actively open their markets to the Chinese financial sector and support Chinese financial institutions in setting up branches and doing business in the EU.
Continue to enhance cooperation between Chinese and EU insurance sectors, conduct exchanges on insurance business and relevant rules and laws through China-EU Insurance Talks and jointly promote healthy and stable development of Chinese and EU insurance markets.
China consistently supports a stable financial market in both EU member states and the Euro Zone and measures of EU institutions and the European Central Bank to achieve financial stability and tackle the European debt issue. China stands ready to provide necessary support in various ways to the stability of the European financial market.
China attaches great importance to the role that the European Investment Bank (EIB) plays in promoting European integration, economic recovery and efforts to address climate change and is willing to further strengthen two-way win-win cooperation with the EIB in tackling climate change, pursuing ecological progress, promoting mutual investment and cooperation in the field of finance.
VII. Cooperation on Industry, Agriculture, Transportation, Science and Technology and Information Technology
Enhance the China-EU Industrial Dialogue and Consultation Mechanism, increase mutual understanding, resolve differences, expand common ground for mutually beneficial industrial development, and promote sustainable industrial development and industrial prosperity in both China and the EU. Continue exchanges and cooperation in the automobile industry, industrial energy efficiency, raw materials, ship building and small and medium sized enterprises, further develop cooperation in the fields of electronic industry, consumer goods, aviation, aerospace and peaceful use of nuclear energy, deepen understanding of each other' s policy and exchange related information and development experience.
Give play to the guiding role of the China-EU Dialogue on Agriculture and Rural Development, achieve fast growth of trade in agricultural products, promote China-EU cooperation in pursuing balanced urban and rural development, protecting and benefiting from agricultural cultural heritage, building the model of environment-friendly agriculture, promoting diversified rural economy and farmers' vocational education, coping with the impact of climate change on agriculture, research on agricultural science and technology, geographical indication and quality and safety of agricultural products.
Continue policy dialogue and communication under the framework of China-EU Maritime Transport Agreement, strengthen coordination and cooperation within the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and other international organizations, deepen and expand exchanges and cooperation on new policies, new technologies and best practices in the fields of logistics, green transportation, road safety, urban traffic management, inland waterway management and information services and so on. Deepen China-EU cooperation and exchanges on civil aviation, properly handle differences through active dialogue, expand and upgrade cooperation on civil aviation and strengthen cooperation between businesses on production, technology, management and training.
Continue to enhance cooperation on scientific research innovation within the framework of the China-EU Steering Committee and the China-EU Innovation Cooperation Dialogue. Draw on each other' s advantages and achieve mutual benefit in innovation strategy, human resources, technology, research facility, financing and exploitation of research findings.
Continue to deepen scientific and technological cooperation in the field of energy, promote research cooperation on reducing energy consumption and emissions of small and medium sized enterprises and clean technology, advance cooperation on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, enhance coordination on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Project and other large international science projects, and continue to make use of carbon capture and sequestration technology to achieve near-zero emission in demonstration coal-based power stations.
Attach importance to aerospace cooperation, enhance cooperation in the fields of space technology and its application, space science and civil global navigation satellite systems and finalize an action plan to follow through with China-EU aerospace cooperation.
Encourage the establishment of China-EU technological cooperation network or joint research base and create a China-EU industry alliance on strategic emerging industries such as renewable energy, digital information, advanced manufacturing, nanotechnology, health and medicine based on the industrial cluster of the China-EU High-tech Park.
Strengthen China-EU Dialogue on Information Technology, Telecommunication and Information, conduct exchanges and dialogue on related strategies, policies and regulations and actively promote cooperation and exchanges on trade in IT products and industrial technology. Encourage broader exchanges on intellectual property rights and technical standards and continue to raise the level of China-EU cooperation on intellectual property rights. Strengthen China-EU cooperation and exchanges on information security, especially cyber security.
VIII. Climate Change, Energy, Environmental Protection, Water Resources and Maritime Cooperation
Actively promote the climate negotiation and cooperation through ministerial-level dialogue and cooperation mechanisms on climate change and China-EU Partnership on Climate Change. Uphold the principles and articles of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and promote a fair and effective international system. Reinforce pragmatic cooperation on low-carbon development, market schemes, low-carbon urbanization and capacity building.
Bring the China-EU Ministerial Dialogue on Environmental Policy and its coordinators' meetings into full play, enhance cooperation on sustainable development, climate change, atmospheric pollution, biodiversity and ecosystem conservation and form greater synergy between China' s efforts to pursue ecological progress and EU' s efforts to increase resource efficiency. Encourage friendly exchanges between Chinese and European non-governmental environmental organizations and businesses of the two sides to enter each other' s environmental markets through fair competition.
Enhance China-EU cooperation on energy security, and jointly cope with the challenges of price competition, supply security and stability, and environmental protection. Conduct China-EU Energy Policy Dialogue, and deepen cooperation on natural gas infrastructure, new energy, smart grid, power grid safety regulation and energy strategy modeling.
Leverage the role of China-EU Water Platform, enhance understanding and cooperation on water resources policy making and overall management, share advanced expertise and technologies of water management, boost the significance and visibility of water resources cooperation under the overall framework of China-EU strategic cooperation, and promote China-EU long-term dialogue and cooperation on water resources, and a joint China-EU response to the global water crisis.x Bring into full play the role of China-EU high-level dialogue on comprehensive marine management, conduct high-level dialogue on maritime affairs, promote bilateral cooperation in areas of shared interest, and conduct cooperation on comprehensive marine management, marine environment protection, marine science and technology, blue economy, maritime law enforcement and Arctic affairs.
IX. Cooperation in the Fields of Education, Culture, Press, Publication and Youth Exchange
Fully harness the leading role of the China-EU High-Level People-to-People Dialogue and actively promote cooperation in the fields of education, culture, press, publication and youth exchange between China and the EU as well as EU member states.
Expand exchanges between students and scholars and promote friendship and mutual understanding between Chinese and European young students, and strive to expand the interflow of students between the two sides to 300,000 person times per year by 2020; enhance cooperation in the teaching of Chinese and European languages and training of teachers and continue the China-EU Dialogue on Education Policy; support the establishment of centers for Chinese studies and centers for European national and regional studies by European and Chinese higher learning institutions and make an effort to build the China-EU Platform for Higher Education Cooperation and Exchange; encourage European and Chinese universities to carry out high-quality cooperation in running schools, jointly advance high-level scientific research programs and help high-level talents to emerge.
Follow through on the outcomes of China-EU Year of Intercultural Dialogue, and ensure the long-term effect of cultural cooperation supported by sound institutions. China supports the efforts to strengthen China-EU dialogue on cultural policies as well as experience sharing in cultural industries, heritage preservation and contemporary art.
Promote exchanges and cooperation in the field of press and publication, and encourage the media from both sides to enhance mutual understanding so that they can present a comprehensive and objective picture of each other' s politics, economy and culture, produce documentaries and publish books and news articles that reflect each other' s economic development, history, culture and customs, cooperate in making films and TV programs, and jointly hold film and TV exhibitions and festivals and book fairs. Continue to strengthen interactions and exchanges between government departments, support the institutional building and deepening of regular China-EU media exchanges, and carry out cooperation through various channels and in various forms, with a view to creating a favorable public opinion environment for the sound and stable growth of China-EU relations.
Make use of new media tools to expand the China-EU platform of information exchange and enable the public to better understand each other' s policies, ideas, development goals, strategic orientation and cultural achievements. Strengthen youth exchange and consolidate the outcomes of China-EU Year of Youth and the China-EU High-Level People-to-People Dialogue, improve the China-EU Youth Policy Dialogue and the platform for exchanges between youth organizations, encourage youth organizations at all levels from different places of China and the EU to carry out exchange and cooperation, and build a wide-ranging, multi-tiered pattern for China-EU youth exchanges.
Strengthen and expand China-EU consular cooperation, and facilitate the personnel interflow between the two sides. China hopes that the EU could take credible steps to protect the safety and lawful rights and interests of Chinese citizens in Europe, and make it easier for Chinese nationals to travel to Europe by, among other things, streamlining visa, immigration and residence procedures. Push for the establishment of China-EU tourism cooperation mechanism, further explore each other' s tourism market, maintain exchanges of tourism policies and statistics, and work for the early signing of the Memorandum of Understanding on Bilateral Tourism Cooperation. The relevant EU member states are urged to speed up the adoption of the Chinese language as an official language of the World Tourism Organization. Strengthen cooperation on exit and entry administration, exchange between border inspection and immigration departments at airports with direct flight link, joint case investigation and fight against illegal immigration.
X. Social, Health, Judicial and Administrative Cooperation
Enhance China-EU cooperation on human resources and social security, expand exchanges on employment, skill development, social security and public administration management, and strengthen coordination on international labor issues.
Support the establishment of the China-EU Public Policy Dialogue, hold the China-EU High-Level Public Policy Forum, invite European political professionals, government officials as well as policy research and consulting personnel to China for exchange and dialogue, and carry out research cooperation on public policy.
Strengthen China-EU cooperation in old-age care, services for the children and people with disabilities, as well as charity and social assistance, support EU companies and member states to invest in old-age service industry in China.
Encourage China-EU economic and social exchanges and cooperation, and increase mutual understanding between people from all social sectors in China and the EU.
Enhance China-EU health cooperation, improve information exchange and sharing on major public health incidents, strengthen communication on the technologies for the prevention and control of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, and carry out cooperation on laboratory testing, diagnosis and treatment, as well as vaccine development.
Improve the capability for jointly countering global health challenges including antibiotic resistance and tobacco control. Strengthen experience exchange on the reform of the medical and healthcare system, and share experience on medical payment system, health security system and e-health. Enhance international cooperation on food safety standard and risk assessment system. Promote China-EU cooperation on traditional Chinese medicine.
China will continue to implement the China-EU legal and judicial cooperation program and expand such cooperation on the basis of equality, mutual respect and non-interference in internal affairs, deepen exchanges in judicial reform and other priority areas, explore judicial cooperation in anti-corruption, combating organized transnational crimes, extradition, transfer of sentenced persons and criminal assets recovery, and promote experience sharing on legal supervision.
Advance China-EU cooperation on police law enforcement, implement the five-year police training cooperation project, expand exchanges on policing administration, public security management, law enforcement regulation, criminal investigation technologies and the fight against organized crimes by organizing training courses, visits and seminars, increase the mutual trust between the two sides, and lay a solid foundation for jointly combating terrorism, economic, cyber and drug-related crimes, organized illegal immigration and other serious organized transnational crimes.
Enhance China-EU cooperation on disaster prevention and reduction and emergency management. China is willing to conduct a policy dialogue with the EU to learn about and draw on its experience and resources in the development of emergency management capability and mechanism, and promote the implementation of the China-EU emergency management project and the building of China-EU Emergency Management College.
Tensions evident in the recent European Union-China virtual summit reflect the increasing skepticism in Europe toward China and the worries over Ukraine and economic ties as well as human rights and environmental issues.