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PRC State Council, China’s Peaceful Development, September 6, 2011

This is an official government “white paper,” issued by the information office of the State Council.
September 6, 2011
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Contents (Link to Chinese Version)
I. The Path of China's Peaceful Development: What It Is About
II. What China Aims to Achieve by Pursuing Peaceful Development
III. China's Foreign Policies for Pursuing Peaceful Development
IV. China's Path of Peaceful Development Is a Choice Necessitated by History
V. What China's Peaceful Development Means to the Rest of the World
Situated in the East, China, a country with an ancient civilization and a population of over 1.3 billion, is making big strides in its advance toward modernization. What path of development has China chosen? What will China's development bring to the rest of the world? These issues are the focus of the whole world.
China has declared to the rest of the world on many occasions that it takes a path of peaceful development and is committed to upholding world peace and promoting common development and prosperity for all countries. At the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century and on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China (CPC), China declared solemnly again to the world that peaceful development is a strategic choice made by China to realize modernization, make itself strong and prosperous, and make more contribution to the progress of human civilization. China will unswervingly follow the path of peaceful development.

I. The Path of China's Peaceful Development: What It Is About

Over the past 5,000 years, people of all ethnic groups in China, with diligence and wisdom, have created a splendid civilization and built a unified multi-ethnic country. The Chinese civilization has a unique feature of being enduring, inclusive and open. The Chinese nation has endeavored to learn from other nations and improved itself through centuries of interactions with the rest of the world, making major contribution to the progress of human civilization.

In the mid-19th century, Western powers forced open China's door with gunboats. Internal turmoil and foreign aggression gradually turned China into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. The country became poor and weak, and the people suffered from wars and chaos. Facing imminent danger of national subjugation, one generation of patriots after another fought hard to find a way to reform and save the nation. The Revolution of 1911 put an end to the system of monarchy which had ruled China for several thousand years, and inspired the Chinese people to struggle for independence and prosperity. However, such efforts and struggle failed to change the nature of China as a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society, or lift the Chinese people out of misery. Living up to the people's expectation, the CPC led them in carrying out arduous struggle, and finally founded the People's Republic of China in 1949. This marked the realization of China's independence and liberation of its people and ushered in a new epoch in China's history.

In the past six decades and more since the founding of New China, and particularly since the introduction of the reform and opening-up policies in 1978, the Chinese government has worked hard to explore a path of socialist modernization that conforms to China's conditions and the trend of the times. Overcoming difficulties and setbacks, the Chinese people have advanced with the times, drawn on both experience and lessons from the development of China itself and other countries, deepened understanding of the laws governing the development of human society, and promoted the self-improvement and growth of the socialist system. Through arduous struggle, the Chinese people have succeeded in finding a path of development conforming to China's reality, the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics.

Viewed in the broader, global and historical context, the path of peaceful development may be defined as follows: China should develop itself through upholding world peace and contribute to world peace through its own development. It should achieve development with its own efforts and by carrying out reform and innovation; at the same time, it should open itself to the outside and learn from other countries. It should seek mutual benefit and common development with other countries in keeping with the trend of economic globalization, and it should work together with other countries to build a harmonious world of durable peace and common prosperity. This is a path of scientific, independent, open, peaceful, cooperative and common development.
-- Scientific development. Scientific development means respecting and following the laws governing the development of economy, society and nature, focusing on development and freeing and developing the productive forces. China takes the Scientific Outlook on Development as an important principle guiding economic and social development, and gives top priority to development in governing and rejuvenating the country by the Party. It puts people first, promotes comprehensive, balanced, and sustainable development, and takes all factors into consideration when making balanced overall plans. In putting people first, the Chinese government always respects human rights and human values and works to meet the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people and promote prosperity for all. It strives to advance the all-round development of man, to ensure that development is for the people, by the people and with the people sharing its fruits. In promoting comprehensive, balanced, and sustainable development, the Chinese government promotes comprehensive economic development as well as political, cultural and social progress and ecological improvement, and coordinated development of all links and aspects of the modernization drive. In making balanced overall plans, the Chinese government seeks to identify and properly handle the major relationships in the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics and maintain balance between urban and rural development, development of different regions, economic and social development, man and nature, and domestic development and opening to the outside world.

-- Independent development. As a populous developing country, China must rely on itself in pursuing development. China maintains independence, focuses on domestic development, acts in keeping with its national conditions, carries out reform and innovation for economic and social development through its own efforts, and it does not shift problems and difficulties onto other countries. In the era of economic globalization, only by pursuing independent development can China more effectively participate in international division of labor, and promote mutually beneficial cooperation with other countries.

-- Open development. China has learned from its development course that it cannot develop itself with its door closed. Taking reform and opening-up as a basic policy, China both carries out domestic reform and opens itself to the outside world, both pursues independent development and takes part in economic globalization and both carries forward the fine traditions of the Chinese nation and draws on all the fine achievements of other civilizations. It combines both the domestic market and foreign markets and uses both domestic resources and foreign resources. China integrates itself with the rest of the world with an open attitude, expands and deepens the opening-up strategy, and strengthens exchanges and cooperation with other countries. It strives to build an open economic system which ensures better linkages with the global economy, mutually beneficial cooperation as well as security and efficiency. China will never close its door to the outside world, and will open itself increasingly wider.

-- Peaceful development. The Chinese nation loves peace. From their bitter sufferings from war and poverty in modern times, the Chinese people have learned the value of peace and the pressing need of development. They see that only peace can allow them to live and work in prosperity and contentment and that only development can bring them decent living. Therefore, the central goal of China's diplomacy is to create a peaceful and stable international environment for its development. In the meantime, China strives to make its due contribution to world peace and development. It never engages in aggression or expansion, never seeks hegemony, and remains a staunch force for upholding regional and world peace and stability.

-- Cooperative development. There are always competition and conflicts in international relations. Each country should draw on others' merits to offset its own weakness through fair competition, find opportunities for cooperation, expand areas of cooperation, and improve common interests. China uses cooperation as a way to pursue peace, promote development and settle disputes. It seeks to establish and develop cooperative relationships of different forms with other countries and effectively meet growing global challenges by constantly expanding mutually beneficial cooperation with other countries, and works with them to solve major problems that affect world economic development and human survival and progress.

-- Common development. Countries are becoming increasingly interdependent. Only when common development of all countries is realized and more people share the fruit of development, can world peace and stability have a solid foundation and be effectively guaranteed, and can development be sustainable in all countries. Therefore, China unswervingly follows a strategy of opening-up and mutual benefit. It pursues both its own interests and the common interests of mankind and works to ensure that its own development and the development of other countries are mutually reinforcing, thus promoting the common development of all countries. China sincerely hopes to work with other countries to realize common development and prosperity.

Thanks to its pursuit of peaceful development, China has undergone profound changes. It has made remarkable achievements in development, made major contribution to world prosperity and stability, and is more closely linked with the rest of the world.

China's overall strength has grown considerably. Its total economic output reached US$5.88 trillion in 2010, over 16 times that of 1978, rising to 9.3% of the world's total from 1.8% in 1978. The material basis for China's modernization drive has become more solid; steady progress has been made in turning China into an industrialized, information-based, urbanized, market-oriented and internationalized country, and the cause of socialist development is being advanced in all respects. The Chinese people, once inadequately fed and clad, are leading a decent life on the whole, a historic breakthrough. The share of China's per capita income comparable to the world average grew from 24.9% in 2005 to 46.8% in 2010. A historic transformation from a highly centralized planned economy to a dynamic socialist market economy has been achieved in China. A basic economic system in which public ownership takes the lead and different economic ownerships grow side by side has come into being. The market plays an increasingly important role in allocating resources, and the system of macroeconomic regulation is improving. A social security system covering both urban and rural residents is taking shape, and culture, education, science and technology, health care, sports and other social programs are flourishing.

A historic transformation turning China from a closed or semi-closed state to one featuring all-round opening up has been realized. With the setting up of special economic zones, opening of coastal areas, regions along the major rivers and the borders and inland areas to the outside world, absorbing foreign investment and making Chinese investment overseas, and entry into the World Trade Organization, China has taken an active part in economic globalization and regional economic cooperation, and its opening-up has steadily deepened. The country's total import and export volume grew from US$20.6 billion-worth in 1978 to US$2.974 trillion-worth in 2010. Utilized foreign direct investment from 1979 to 2010 totaled US$1.04838 trillion. China maintains business and trade ties with 163 countries and regions. It has signed ten free-trade-zone agreements, bilateral investment treaties with 129 countries, and double taxation avoidance agreements with 96 countries. All this shows that China is actively promoting liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment. To honor its commitments to the WTO, China has reduced its total tariff rate from 15.3% before its entry into the WTO to the present 9.8%, and abolished most non-tariff measures. China has been working to build a framework in which its relations with other major countries are generally stable and mutually beneficial and develop in a balanced way, and which ensures that China and its neighbors share opportunities and develop together. It has strengthened traditional friendship, solidarity and cooperation with other developing countries. China is becoming increasingly interdependent with other countries, it is more closely linked with them in terms of interests, and its exchanges and cooperation with other countries are becoming more extensive than ever before.

China has made important contribution to the stable development of the world economy. Since its entry into the WTO in 2001, China has imported goods worth nearly US$750 billion every year, and created over 14 million jobs for those exporting countries and regions. Over the past decade, foreign-funded companies in China have remitted a total of US$261.7 billion of profits, with an annual increase of 30%. From 2000 to 2010, China's annual non-financial direct overseas investment grew from less than US$1 billion to US$59 billion, thus boosting the economic development in the recipient countries. In 2009, overseas China-invested companies paid taxes worth US$10.6 billion, and employed 439,000 local people. China has contributed over 10% to world economic growth every year in recent years. In 1997 when the Asian financial crisis caused a dramatic devaluation of currencies in countries and regions close to it, China succeeded in keeping the RMB exchange rate basically stable, contributing to regional economic stability and development. Since the international financial crisis erupted in 2008, China has taken an active part in the G20's efforts to build a global economic governance mechanism, promoted the reform of the international financial system, got involved in multi-country macroeconomic policy coordination, and participated in international trade financing schemes and financial cooperation. It has sent large overseas purchasing missions and helped countries in difficulties. China conscientiously meets the Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations, and is the only country in the world that has halved the number of people living in poverty ahead of schedule. In addition, China provides assistance to other countries and regions as its capacity permits. By the end of 2009, China had given assistance worth RMB 256.3 billion to 161 countries and over 30 international and regional organizations, reduced and canceled 380 debts incurred by 50 heavily indebted poor countries and least-developed countries, trained 120,000 people for other developing countries, and sent 21,000 medical personnel and nearly 10,000 teachers abroad to help other countries. China encourages the least-developed countries to expand exports to China and has pledged zero tariff treatment to over 95% of the exports to China by all the least-developed countries which have diplomatic relations with China.

China plays an important role in safeguarding world peace and meeting global challenges. China is the only nuclear-weapon country that has publicly stated that it will not be the first to use nuclear weapons, or use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. China has dispatched about 21,000 personnel on 30 UN peacekeeping missions, which is the highest number among the permanent members of the UN Security Council. China takes an active part in international cooperation in anti-terrorism and nonproliferation. It provides humanitarian aid and dispatches rescue teams to countries hit by severe natural disasters and deploys naval escort fleets to combat piracy in the Gulf of Aden and off the coast of Somalia. China is a member of over 100 intergovernmental international organizations, a party to over 300 international conventions, and an active participant in building the international system. China is the first developing country to formulate and implement the National Climate Change Program. It is also one of the countries which have made the greatest efforts in energy saving and emission reduction and which have made the fastest progress in developing new and renewable energy sources in recent years. China has played a constructive role in addressing international and regional hotspot problems. For instance, it calls for resolving the Korean nuclear issue, the Iranian nuclear issue and other hotspot issues through peaceful talks, and has helped to establish the Six-Party Talks mechanism on the Korean nuclear issue. China has settled historical boundary issues with 12 land neighbors. It calls for settling disputes over territory and maritime rights and interests with neighboring countries through dialogue and negotiation. For instance, China has made a constructive proposal to "shelve disputes and seek joint development" and done its utmost to uphold peace and stability in the South China Sea, East China Sea and the surrounding areas. China seeks to promote common development and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region by pursuing bilateral cooperation and participating in regional and sub-regional cooperation.

China's development since New China was founded in 1949 and particularly since the reform and opening-up policies were introduced in 1978 shows that China is an important member of the international community which has contributed its due share to bringing about a more just and equitable international political and economic order.

II. What China Aims to Achieve by Pursuing Peaceful Development

China's overall goal of pursuing peaceful development is to promote development and harmony domestically and pursue cooperation and peace internationally. Specifically, this means that China will endeavor to make life better for its people and contribute to human progress through hard work, innovation and reform carried out by the Chinese people and growing long-term friendly relations and promoting equality and mutually-beneficial cooperation with other countries. This has become a national commitment which is manifest in strategies for national development, and progress made in the course of China's development.

To achieve modernization and common prosperity for the people is the overall goal of China's pursuit of peaceful development. Following the introduction of the policies of reform and opening-up to the outside world in the late 1970s, China adopted and implemented a three-step strategy for achieving modernization. The first step was to double the GNP of 1980 and ensure people's basic living needs. The second step was to redouble the output of 1980 and achieve initial prosperity by the end of the 20th century. The goals of these two steps have been met. The third step aims to make the per capita GNP reach the level of that of the medium-developed countries, bring about general prosperity, basically realize modernization and build China into a rich, strong, democratic, civilized, harmonious and modern socialist country by the 100th anniversary of the People's Republic of China in the mid-21st century. The central goal of this three-step development strategy is to improve people's material and cultural lives, and make the people rich and the country strong. Meanwhile, as its comprehensive strength increases, China will shoulder corresponding international responsibilities and obligations.

To build a society of higher-level initial prosperity in an all-round way which benefits over one billion Chinese people is the medium-and long-term goal of China's pursuit of peaceful development. By 2020, China will have built a society of higher-level initial prosperity in an all-round way that benefits the over one billion Chinese people. This will make China a country which has basically realized industrialization, significantly increased its comprehensive national strength and taken the lead in the world in terms of the total size of the domestic market. The general living standard and quality of life of the Chinese people will be raised, and the country's natural environment will be well protected. The Chinese people will enjoy full democratic rights, are better educated and pursue common aspirations. China's social system and institutions will be further improved, the Chinese society will be more dynamic, stable and unified, and China will be a more open and engaging country and contribute more to human civilization.

To implement the Twelfth Five-Year Plan of development is the near and medium-term goal of China's pursuit of peaceful development. To build a society of initial prosperity in an all-round way, the Outline of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China (2011-2015) laid down the guiding principles, goals and major tasks for this period. In the coming five years, China will focus on scientific development and accelerate the shifting of model of growth in pursuing economic and social development, and efforts will be made to achieve the following goals: ensuring stable and fairly fast development of the economy, making great progress in carrying out strategic adjustment of the economy, significantly improving science, technology and education, making major progress in saving resources and protecting the environment, continuing to improve people's lives, enhancing social services and further deepening the reform and opening-up to the outside world. Through the concerted efforts of the Chinese people, we will make major progress in shifting the model of growth, markedly improve China's comprehensive strength, international competitiveness and the ability to ward off risks and consolidate the foundation for building a society of initial prosperity in an all-round way. Meanwhile, China will energetically conduct international exchanges and cooperation, and expand and deepen the shared interests of all countries to promote common development.

From ensuring people's basic living needs to building a society of initial prosperity and then to reaching the level of the medium-developed countries -- this is what China's strategy for peaceful development is all about. To reach these goals, China will make the following efforts:

-- Accelerating the shifting of the model of growth

Making adjustment of the economic sectors will receive top priority. Domestic demand, especially consumer demand, will be stimulated by increasing individual consumption through multiple channels and by adjusting and improving the domestic investment mix. Industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization will be promoted simultaneously so that economic growth will be driven by the combined forces of consumption, investment and export instead of investment and export only. China's economic growth will be driven by the combined forces of the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors instead of the secondary sector only. It will also be driven by progress in R&D, better quality of the labor force and managerial innovation instead of increase of material and resource consumption. Moreover, we are carrying out strategies of accelerating development through developing science and technology, and fostering people with capabilities to build China into a country of innovation. We should be open to new ideas and be innovative in improving institutions, draw on the advanced technologies and managerial expertise of other countries, and improve the sustainability and efficiency of economic growth.

We will make more efforts to remove bottlenecks in resources and the environment that impede development. We will adopt a green and low-carbon development approach with emphasis on energy-saving and emission reduction, and accelerate the forming of energy-saving and eco-friendly modes of production and consumption. We will build a circular economy, improve environmental quality, build safe, stable, efficient, clean and modern energy industries, enhance resources supply, promote harmonious development between man and nature, and strike a balance among economic development, population, resources and the environment. We will explore a new path towards industrialization based on science and technology, with high economic returns, low consumption of resources, less pollution, and full utilization of human resources. The all-round, coordinated and sustainable growth of China's economy will create great space for the growth of the world economy.

-- Further exploiting China's domestic resources and its market strengths

With abundant human and material resources and a fairly complete industrial system, China will mainly rely on itself in pursuing sustainable development. It is estimated that by 2015 the number of skilled personnel will reach 156 million in China, 15% of the workforce will have received higher education, and the rate of contribution to economic growth by skilled people will reach 32%. This will ensure ample supply of quality labor force to sustain China's economic development. China ranks among the first in the world in terms of deposits of mineral resources and farmland and is basically self sufficient in grain supply. Although China's per capita share of resources is low, we can minimize dependence on resources by China's economic and social development by giving full play to market's role of resources allocation and progress in R&D. China will fully tap the strengths of its industries of raw material, equipment manufacturing and consumer goods production to meet the consumption demands of the Chinese people and provide more quality goods and services to the international market.

The size of China's population and its total economic output mean a huge potential of domestic demand. With the continuous increase of per capita income, steady growth of domestic investment, and further progress in implementing the strategy for regional development, China will see the emergence of growth engines and its market will further expand. In the coming five years, China's consumption structure will be further upgraded, and the potential of individual consumption will be further released. The size of China's domestic market will be one of the biggest in the world, and the accumulated import volume is expected to reach US$8 trillion. All this will create more business opportunities to other countries.

-- Accelerating the building of a harmonious society

China will accelerate the building of a harmonious society with emphasis on improving people's lives, thus strengthening the foundation of achieving social harmony. It will accelerate the reform of social systems, improve basic public services, develop new mechanisms for social management and make such management more efficient, and improve income distribution and the social security system. Our goal is to ensure that all people have the right to education, employment and pay, medical and old-age services and housing, so that all the people share the responsibility of creating a harmonious society and enjoy life and the full benefit of development in such a society.

We will strengthen the building of socialist democracy, advance the political structural reform actively and steadily, develop socialist democracy and turn China into a socialist country under the rule of law and ensure that the people control their own destiny. We will continue to conduct democratic election, decision-making, governance and supervision in accordance with the law, uphold people's right to have access to information, to participate in governance, to express their views and to supervise the government, and we will expand orderly public participation in the political process. We will continue to treat all ethnic groups as equals and practice the system of regional autonomy of ethnic minorities, protect people's freedom of religious belief according to law, and fully respect and uphold basic human rights and other lawful rights and interests of citizens.

-- Implementing the opening-up strategy of mutual benefit

China will continue to pursue the basic state policy of opening up to the outside world and the opening-up strategy of mutual benefit. By making full use of the favorable conditions created by economic globalization and regional economic cooperation in the course of opening-up, we will move away from focusing on export and absorbing foreign investment towards putting equal emphasis on import and export and on absorbing foreign investment and making overseas investment. We will continuously explore new ways of opening up and improving the open economic system and make the open economy work better so as to promote China's development, reform and innovation through opening-up.

We will speed up the way of conducting foreign trade and continue to actively participate in international division of labor. We will move away from focusing on increasing volume of trade only to improving the quality and efficiency of trade, and raise the overall competitiveness of China's foreign trade instead of relying on low cost production. We will make great efforts to promote service trade, increase import, and bring about basic balance of payment in international trade. We oppose trade protectionism and handle properly frictions in international trade.

We will make better use of foreign investment by continuously improving the investment structure, diversifying ways of investment and expanding investment channels. We will also speed up the introduction of intellectual resources, talented people and new technologies, and encourage foreign investment in key areas and regions. We will protect the legitimate rights and interests of foreign companies in China, adopt an open attitude towards foreign capital and advanced technologies, and foster a fair and orderly investment environment. We will continue to implement the national strategy for intellectual property rights and enhance ability to create, apply, protect and manage intellectual property.

We will attach greater importance to overseas investment and international cooperation. We encourage companies of all types to make overseas investment and engage in joint operations in an orderly way, make R&D-related investment and undertake overseas project contracting and provide labor services. In addition, we will expand international cooperation in agriculture and deepen mutually beneficial cooperation with other countries in the development of energy and other resources. We will undertake more cooperation projects in host countries which improve life of the local people and enhance the ability for self-development of the host countries. The Chinese companies are requested to respect local religions and customs, observe local laws, undertake due social responsibilities and obligations, and promote the development of the host countries. We will improve and develop new ways of providing aid so as to make aid more effective.

We will continue to open China's financial market and financial sectors in an orderly way. We will build a financial system that provides efficient services and places risks under control. We will improve the managed, floating exchange rate system based on market supply and demand, and make the RMB convertible under capital account in a phased way. These measures will not only facilitate foreign trade and investment cooperation with China, but also create better conditions for maintaining the stability of international currencies and financial market and promoting the sound development of economic globalization.

-- Creating a peaceful international environment and favorable external conditions

China will continue to promote friendly relations with the other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. We will increase strategic dialogue with the developed countries to promote strategic mutual trust, deepen mutually beneficial cooperation, handle differences properly, explore ways to establish and develop a new type of relationship among the major countries and promote long-term, steady and sound growth of China's relations with these countries. We will continue the policy of developing good-neighborly relations and treating China's neighbors as partners and enhance friendship and cooperation with both the neighboring countries and other Asian countries. We will expand bilateral and regional cooperation and jointly create a regional environment of peace, stability, equality, mutual trust, cooperation and mutual benefit. We will enhance unity with other developing countries, deepen traditional friendship, expand mutually beneficial cooperation, sincerely help the other developing countries achieve independent development by providing aid and making investment and uphold their legitimate rights and interests as well as their common interests. We will actively engage in handling multilateral issues and addressing global issues, undertake our due international obligations and play a constructive role in making the international political and economic order fairer and more equitable. We will continue to carry out exchanges and cooperation with the parliaments, parties, local authorities and NGOs of other countries, expand people-to-people and cultural exchanges to enhance understanding and friendship between the Chinese people and the people of other countries.

China is committed to pursuing a defense policy which is defensive in nature. China has a vast land territory and sea area, with a borderline of over 22,000 kilometers and a coastline of over 18,000 kilometers. China faces multiple traditional and non-traditional security challenges and the threat of separatists and terrorism. It is therefore necessary and justified to modernize China's defense capabilities in order to uphold China's security and protect its peaceful development. The fundamental purpose of modernizing the Chinese armed forces is to safeguard China's sovereignty, security, territorial integrity and interests of national development. China's defense expenditures are appropriate and moderate, and are in keeping with the need to safeguard its security. China will not engage in arms race with any other country, and it does not pose a military threat to any other country. China follows the principle of not attacking others unless it is attacked, and it is committed to solving international disputes and hotspot issues with peaceful means. China actively carries out international military exchanges, promotes international and regional security cooperation and opposes terrorism in all forms.

III. China's Foreign Policies for Pursuing Peaceful Development

As a member of the international community, China has great hope for the future world, and adopts the following thinking on international relations and foreign policies that conform to peaceful development.

-- Promoting the building of a harmonious world
China's foreign policy aims to uphold world peace and promote common development. China advocates the building of a harmonious world of durable peace and common prosperity and works with other countries in pursuing this goal. To China, it is both a long-term objective and a current task. To build a harmonious world, we should make the following efforts:

Politically, countries should respect each other and treat each other as equals, and work together to promote democracy in international relations. All the countries in the world, whether big or small, strong or weak, rich or poor, are equal members of the international community and should receive due respect of the international community. Countries should also safeguard the UN's core role in handling global affairs, adhere to the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, abide by international law and the generally-accepted principles governing international relations, and promote democracy, harmony, coordination and win-win spirit in international relations. The internal affairs of a country should be decided by its own people, international affairs should be decided by all countries through consultation on an equal footing, and every country's right to equally participate in international affairs should be respected and upheld.

Economically, countries should cooperate with each other, draw on each other's strengths and make economic globalization a balanced and win-win process that benefits all countries. Countries should also seek to establish an international multilateral trading system that is fair, open, equitable and nondiscriminatory so that the benefit of economic globalization will cover all countries. All countries should work together to fulfill the UN Millennium Development Goals and enable everyone to enjoy the benefit of development in the 21st century.

Culturally, countries should draw on each other's strengths, seek common ground while putting aside differences, respect the diversity of the world, and promote progress in human civilization. Dialogues and exchanges among civilizations should be encouraged to do away with ideological prejudice and distrust, and make human society more harmonious and the world more colorful.

In terms of security, countries should trust each other and strengthen cooperation, settle international disputes and conflicts peacefully rather than resorting to war and jointly safeguard world peace and stability. Consultation and dialogue should be carried out to enhance mutual trust, reduce differences and settle disputes. Use or threat of use of military force should be avoided.

In terms of the environment, all countries should help each other and make concerted efforts to better protect our only home -- the Earth. Countries should develop new modes of development, take the path of sustainable development and promote the harmonious development of man and nature. We should follow the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, and enhance international cooperation in environmental protection and in addressing climate change.

-- Pursuing an independent foreign policy of peace
The Chinese people adhere to the social system and path of development chosen by themselves and will never allow any external forces to interfere in China's internal affairs. China promotes friendly and cooperative relations with all the other countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. It does not form alliance with any other country or group of countries, nor does it use social system or ideology as a yardstick to determine what kind of relations it should have with other countries. China respects the right of the people of other countries to independently choose their own social system and path of development, and does not interfere in other countries' internal affairs. It is opposed to the practices of the big bullying the small and the strong oppressing the weak, and to hegemonism and power politics. China calls for settling disputes and conflicts through talks and consultation and by seeking common ground while putting aside differences. It does not impose its own will upon others and acts in the fundamental interests of the Chinese people and the common interests of all peoples throughout the world. China bases its decision on a particular issue according to its merits. Upholding justice, China plays an active and constructive role in international affairs.

China is firm in upholding its core interests which include the following: state sovereignty, national security, territorial integrity and national reunification, China's political system established by the Constitution and overall social stability, and the basic safeguards for ensuring sustainable economic and social development.
China fully respects other countries' legitimate rights to protect their interests. While developing itself, it fully accommodates other countries' legitimate concerns and interests and never makes gains at others' expense or shifts its own troubles onto others.

China aligns its own interests with the common interests of the people of the world and seeks to expand common interests of all the parties. It works to establish and expand community of common interests in various fields and at various levels with other countries and regions. China is committed to promoting the common interests of all humanity and bringing the benefit of human civilization to everyone.

-- Promoting new thinking on security featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination
China advocates a new thinking on security featuring mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and coordination, and pursues comprehensive security, common security and cooperative security.

In terms of comprehensive security, the security issue has new dimensions as traditional and non-traditional security threats have become intertwined under the new historical conditions. The international community should appreciate the need of ensuring comprehensive security and adopt comprehensive measures to address security threats and their root causes and countries around the world should work together to meet various challenges to security.

Regarding common security, all countries share a common stake in the era of economic globalization. The international community should heighten awareness of common security. Countries should safeguard their own security while respecting others' security concerns. They should abandon the Cold War mentality and confrontation between different alliances, uphold common security through multilateral cooperation and work together to prevent conflicts and wars. It is important to give full play to the UN's role in maintaining world peace and security and establish a fair and effective mechanism for upholding common security.
With regards to cooperative security, war and confrontation will only lead to a vicious cycle of violence begetting violence, while dialogue and negotiation are the only effective and reliable way to settle disputes. Countries should seek peace, safeguard security, settle disputes and promote harmony through cooperation, and oppose the use or threat of use of military force against one another.

-- Actively living up to international responsibility
For China, the most populous developing country, to run itself well is the most important fulfillment of its international responsibility. As a responsible member of the international community, China abides by international law and the generally recognized principles governing international relations, and eagerly fulfills its international responsibility. China has actively participated in reforming international systems, formulating international rules and addressing global issues. It supports the development of other developing countries, and works to safeguard world peace and stability. As countries vary in national conditions and are in different stages of development, they should match responsibility with rights in accordance with their national strength. They should play a constructive role by fulfilling their due international responsibility in accordance with their own capability and on the basis of aligning their own interests with the common interests of mankind. For its part, China will assume more international responsibility as its comprehensive strength increases.

-- Promoting regional cooperation and good-neighborly relations
China actively enhances friendly cooperation with its neighbors and works with them to promote a harmonious Asia. China calls on countries in the region to respect each other, increase mutual trust, seek common ground while putting aside differences, safeguard regional peace and stability, and settle disputes including those over territorial claims and maritime rights and interests through dialogue and friendly negotiation. Countries should increase trade and mutually beneficial cooperation, promote regional economic integration, improve the current regional and sub-regional cooperative mechanisms, be open-minded to other proposals for regional cooperation, and welcome countries outside the region to play a constructive role in promoting regional peace and development. China does not seek regional hegemony or sphere of influence, nor does it want to exclude any country from participating in regional cooperation. China's prosperity, development and long-term stability represent an opportunity rather than a threat to its neighbors. China will uphold the Asian spirit of standing on its own feet, being bold in opening new ground, being open and inclusive and sharing weal and woe. It will remain a good neighbor, friend and partner of other Asian countries.

IV. China's Path of Peaceful Development Is a Choice Necessitated by History

Taking the path of peaceful development is a strategic choice made by the Chinese government and people in keeping with the fine tradition of Chinese culture, the development trend of the times and the fundamental interests of China, and it is also a choice which China's development calls for.

-- Peaceful development carries forward the Chinese historical and cultural tradition.
The world has been believed to be a harmonious whole in the Chinese culture ever since the ancient times. This belief has a lasting impact on the thinking and acts of the Chinese nation, which is an important value that the Chinese people follow in handling interpersonal relationships, the relationship between man and nature and relations between different countries.

The Chinese people have always cherished a world view of "unity without uniformity," "harmony between man and nature," and "harmony is invaluable." This belief calls for the fostering of harmonious family bond, neighborhood harmony and good interpersonal relationships. Under the influence of the culture of harmony, peace-loving has been deeply ingrained in the Chinese character. The world-renowned Silk Road, for example, was a road of trade, cultural exchanges and peace, which testifies to the pursuit of friendship and mutually beneficial cooperation with other peoples by the ancient Chinese. The famous Ming Dynasty navigator Zheng He made seven voyages to the Western Seas, visiting over 30 countries and regions across Asia and Africa. He took along with him the cream of the Chinese culture and technology as well as a message of peace and friendship.

Imbued with the belief that one should be as inclusive as the vast ocean which admits hundreds of rivers, the Chinese nation has embraced all that is fine in foreign cultures. This has forged strong cultural ties, leaving behind much-told anecdotes about the cultural interactions between China and the world. The Chinese have a strong collective consciousness and sense of social responsibility. We believe that "you should not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you." We respect different cultures and views, treat others in the same way as we expect to be treated, and do not impose our will upon others. We treat all foreign countries with courtesy, foster harmonious ties with neighbors and make friends with distant states.
The Chinese people have inherited the fine tradition of Chinese culture of over 5,000 years and added to it new dimensions of the times.

-- Peaceful development is determined by China's basic national conditions.
China has a large population yet a weak economic base. It has to feed close to 20% of the world's population with 7.9% of the world's farmland and 6.5% of the world's fresh water. What has been achieved in its social and economic development must meet the need of 1.3 billion people, which presents a great challenge to China. China's per capita GDP in 2010 was about US$4,400, ranking around the 100th place in the world. Unbalanced development still exists between the urban and rural areas and among different regions; the structural problems in economic and social development remain acute; and economic growth, which excessively depends on resource input, is increasingly constrained by resource shortages and environmental problems. All this has made the shifting of the growth model a daunting task. China's capacity for independent innovation is weak, and it is at the low end of the value chain in both international division of labor and trade. The standard of living of the Chinese is not high, and China's social security system is inadequate, lagging far behind those of the developed countries.

China's modernization involves one fifth of the world's population and will be a long-term process. The scale and magnitude of the difficulties and problems involved are unprecedented in the present world and rare in human history. China will remain a developing country for a long time to come, which means that China must dedicate itself to advancing its modernization drive, promoting development and improving its people's livelihood. This calls for maintaining a peaceful and stable international environment and conducting international exchanges and cooperation. China could become strong in the future. Yet peace will remain critical for its development, and China has no reason to deviate from the path of peaceful development. China's basic conditions, its cultural traditions, its fundamental national interests and its long-term interests -- all these factors have created the innate force driving China's peaceful development.
-- Peaceful development is a choice that represents the global trend.
Peace and development are the two major issues of today's world. Peace, development and cooperation are part of the irresistible global trend. The world today is moving towards multipolarity and economic globalization is gaining momentum. There is a growing call for change in the international system and the world is facing more historical challenges. To share opportunities presented by development and jointly ward off risks is the common desire of the people of the world.

Economic globalization has become an important trend in the evolution of international relations. Countries of different systems and different types and at various development stages are in a state of mutual dependence, with their interests intertwined. This has turned the world into a community of common destiny in which the members are closely interconnected. Another world war would be disastrous for the whole of mankind, and no one would emerge victorious in an all-out conflict between big powers.

Global challenges have become major threats to the world. Common security issues are becoming ever more severe. They include terrorism, the spread of weapons of mass destruction, financial crises, natural disasters, climate change, and security of energy, resources, food and public health, and the list is growing. These and other global problems have a major impact on human survival and sustainable economic and social development. No country can handle these issues on its own, which should be addressed by all countries together. If these problems are not addressed through comprehensive and sustained international cooperation, world peace and development will run into huge obstacles and could even suffer disastrous setback.

The global trend towards multipolarity is irresistible. The emerging economies, regional groups and Asian and other regions are becoming stronger, and various non-state actors are growing fast, which, taking advantage of economic globalization and the information age, expand their influence and have become an important force in various countries and in the international arena.

The global trend is surging forward: those who go along with it will prosper and those who go against it will perish. The international community should reject the zero-sum game which was a product of the old international relations, the dangerous cold and hot war mentality, and all those beaten tracks which repeatedly led mankind to confrontation and war. It should find new perspectives from the angle of the community of common destiny, sharing weal and woe and pursuing mutually beneficial cooperation, exploring new ways to enhance exchanges and mutual learning among different civilizations, identifying new dimensions in the common interests and values of mankind, and looking for new ways to handle multiple challenges through cooperation among countries and realize inclusive development. We want peace and not war, development and not stagnation; dialogue and not confrontation; understanding and not misunderstanding. This is the general trend of the world and the common aspiration of all people. It is against this historical background that China has chosen the path of peaceful development.

V. What China's Peaceful Development Means to the Rest of the World

The path of peaceful development is a new path of development which China, the biggest developing country in the world has embarked upon, and its global impact will manifest itself over time. Its success calls for both the untiring efforts of the Chinese people and understanding and support from the international community.

China's peaceful development has broken away from the traditional pattern where a rising power was bound to seek hegemony. In modern history, some rising powers established colonies, fought for spheres of influence, and conducted military expansion against other countries. This reached climax in the 20th century, when rivalry for hegemony and military confrontation plunged mankind into the abyss of two devastating world wars. With a keen appreciation of its historical and cultural tradition of several thousand years, the nature of economic globalization, changes in international relations and the international security landscape in the 21st century as well as the common interests and values of humanity, China has decided upon peaceful development and mutually beneficial cooperation as a fundamental way to realize its modernization, participate in international affairs and handle international relations. The experiences of the past several decades have proved that China is correct in embarking upon the path of peaceful development, and there is no reason whatsoever for China to deviate from this path.

Economic globalization and revolution in science and technology have created historical conditions for more countries to revitalize themselves by pursuing economic development and mutually beneficial cooperation, and made it possible for more developing countries to embark on the path of rapid development. Because of this, the size of the world economy and the potential for development are both increasing, the international community is better positioned to resist economic and financial crises, and there is stronger impetus for reforming the international economic system. China's peaceful development conforms with this global trend. China is glad to see and supports more and more developing countries in changing their destiny, and it is also glad to see and supports the developed countries in maintaining prosperity and development.

In the ever-changing world of today, all doctrines, systems, models and paths are subject to the test of the times and practice. As national conditions vary from country to country, there is no such thing as a fixed mode of development which claims to be the only effective one and applicable to all. A path of development is viable only when it suits the national conditions of a country. China's path of development has taken shape in the Chinese environment. China is fully aware that taking the path of peaceful development is an important and long-term process and that the current domestic and foreign environments are going through profound and complex changes. It will thus better summarize and apply its own successful experience, draw on the practices of other countries, and stay alert about new problems and challenges that may arise, so as to open up brighter prospects for peaceful development.

China cannot develop itself in isolation from the rest of the world, and global prosperity and stability cannot be maintained without China. China's achievements are inseparable from its friendly cooperation with the outside world; in pursuing development, it needs further understanding and support from the rest of the world. We are deeply appreciative to all the countries and peoples who have shown understanding and solicitude for and given support and help to China's development. Taking the path of peaceful development by China with its over one billion population is a great new undertaking in the history of human development, and we do not claim that what we do leaves nothing more to be desired. We welcome all friendly suggestions and well-intentioned criticism. We sincerely hope that the international community will have a deeper appreciation of China's time-honored cultural traditions, and respect its sovereignty, security, territorial integrity and social stability, which the Chinese people hold dear. We hope that it will appreciate China's need to settle, step by step, various difficulties in development it faces as the largest developing country, and the aspiration of the Chinese people to shake off poverty and live a prosperous life. We also hope that the international community will have confidence in the Chinese people's sincerity and determination to achieve peaceful development, and support rather than obstruct China's pursuit of peaceful development.

Looking back at the past and looking ahead to the future, we are convinced that a prosperous and developing China, a democratic, harmonious and stable country under the rule of law, will make more contribution to the world. The Chinese people will make unremitting efforts together with other peoples to bring about a bright future for mankind.

 
中国的和平发展
中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
2011年9月

目 录
   一、中国和平发展道路的开辟
   二、中国和平发展的总体目标
   三、中国和平发展的对外方针政策
   四、中国和平发展是历史的必然选择
   五、中国和平发展的世界意义

在世界的东方,中国这个拥有13亿多人口的文明古国,正在现代化道路上阔步前行。世界对中国的关注集中起来就是,中国选择了一条什么样的发展道路,中国的发展对世界意味着什么?

中国多次向世界宣示,中国始终不渝走和平发展道路,在坚持自己和平发展的同时,致力于维护世界和平,积极促进各国共同发展繁荣。在进入21世纪第二个十年和中国共产党成立90周年之际,中国再次向世界郑重宣告,和平发展是中国实现现代化和富民强国、为世界文明进步作出更大贡献的战略抉择。中国将坚定不移沿着和平发展道路走下去。

   一、中国和平发展道路的开辟
在5000多年文明发展历程中,中国各族人民以自己的勤劳智慧,创造了璀璨的中华文明,缔造了统一的多民族国家。中华文明具有独特的延续性、包容性、开放性。在长期对外交往中,中华民族努力学习借鉴其他民族的长处,自强不息,为人类文明进步作出了重大贡献。

19世纪中叶,西方列强用炮舰打开中国封闭的门户,内忧外患导致中国逐步成为半殖民地半封建社会,国家积贫积弱、战乱不已,民不聊生。在民族存亡的危急关头,无数仁人志士前仆后继,苦苦追寻变革救亡之路。1911年的辛亥革命,结束了统治中国几千年的君主专制制度,激励中国人民为争取民族独立和国家富强而斗争。然而,这些探索和斗争都未能改变中国半殖民地半封建的社会性质和中国人民的悲惨命运。中国共产党肩负民族的期望,带领中国人民进行了艰苦卓绝的奋斗,于1949年建立了中华人民共和国,实现了民族独立、人民解放,开创了中国历史新纪元。

新中国成立60多年特别是改革开放30多年来,中国一直致力于探索符合本国国情和时代要求的社会主义现代化道路。虽然历经曲折,中国人民却孜孜以求、与时俱进,不断总结汲取本国及其他国家发展的经验教训,不断深化对人类社会发展规律的认识,不断推动社会主义制度自我完善和发展。通过艰苦努力,中国找到了一条符合自身国情的发展道路,这就是中国特色社会主义道路。

从更宽广的世界历史视野看,和平发展道路归结起来就是:既通过维护世界和平发展自己,又通过自身发展维护世界和平;在强调依靠自身力量和改革创新实现发展的同时,坚持对外开放,学习借鉴别国长处;顺应经济全球化发展潮流,寻求与各国互利共赢和共同发展;同国际社会一道努力,推动建设持久和平、共同繁荣的和谐世界。这条道路最鲜明的特征是科学发展、自主发展、开放发展、和平发展、合作发展、共同发展。
   ——科学发展。科学发展就是尊重并遵循经济社会和自然发展规律,牢牢扭住经济建设这个中心,坚持聚精会神搞建设,一心一意谋发展,不断解放和发展社会生产力。中国把科学发展观作为经济社会发展的重要指导方针,坚持把发展作为党执政兴国的第一要务,坚持以人为本,坚持全面协调可持续发展,坚持统筹兼顾。坚持以人为本,始终尊重人权和人的价值,不断满足人民日益增长的物质文化需要,走共同富裕道路,促进人的全面发展,做到发展为了人民、发展依靠人民、发展成果由人民共享。坚持全面协调可持续发展,全面推进经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设以及生态文明建设,促进现代化建设各个环节、各个方面相协调。坚持统筹兼顾,正确认识和妥善处理中国特色社会主义事业中的重大关系,统筹城乡发展、区域发展、经济社会发展、人与自然和谐发展、国内发展和对外开放。

   ——自主发展。中国这样人口众多的发展中大国归根结底要靠自己的力量来发展。中国始终坚持独立自主,把国家发展的基点和重心放在国内,注重从本国国情出发,主要依靠自身力量和改革创新推动经济社会发展,不把问题和矛盾转嫁给别国。在经济全球化大背景下,中国只有坚持自主发展,才能更有效地参与国际分工,才能更好地同世界各国开展互利合作。

   ——开放发展。中国从自身发展经验中深刻认识到,不能关起门来搞建设。中国把改革开放作为一项基本国策,把对内改革和对外开放结合起来,把坚持独立自主同参与经济全球化结合起来,把继承中华民族优良传统同学习借鉴人类社会一切文明成果结合起来,把国际国内两个市场、两种资源结合起来,以开放的姿态融入世界,不断拓展对外开放的广度和深度,加强同世界各国交流合作,完善内外联动、互利共赢、安全高效的开放型经济体系。中国对外开放的大门绝不会关上,开放水平只会越来越高。

   ——和平发展。中华民族是爱好和平的民族,中国人民从近代以后遭受战乱和贫穷的惨痛经历中,深感和平之珍贵、发展之迫切,深信只有和平才能实现人民安居乐业,只有发展才能实现人民丰衣足食,把为国家发展营造和平稳定的国际环境作为对外工作的中心任务。同时,中国积极为世界和平与发展作出自己应有的贡献,绝不搞侵略扩张,永远不争霸、不称霸,始终是维护世界和地区和平稳定的坚定力量。

   ——合作发展。国际社会始终会存在竞争和矛盾。各国应该在良性竞争中取长补短,不断寻找合作机会,扩大合作领域,拓展共同利益。中国坚持以合作谋和平、以合作促发展、以合作化争端,同其他国家建立和发展不同形式的合作关系,致力于通过同各国不断扩大互利合作,有效应对日益增多的全球性挑战,协力解决关乎世界经济发展和人类生存进步的重大问题。

   ——共同发展。当今世界各国相互依存日益加深,只有实现世界各国共同发展,让更多人分享发展成果,世界和平稳定才有坚实基础和有效保障,世界各国发展才可以持续。因此,中国坚持奉行互利共赢的开放战略,坚持自身利益与人类共同利益的一致性,在追求自身发展的同时努力实现与他国发展的良性互动,促进世界各国共同发展。中国真诚期待同世界各国并肩携手,实现共同发展繁荣。

沿着和平发展道路,中国经历了广泛而深刻的变革,取得了显著的发展成就,为世界繁荣稳定作出了重大贡献,与世界更加紧密地联系在一起。

实现综合国力大幅度提升。经济总量从1978年到2010年翻了四番多,达到5.88万亿美元,占世界的比重从1.8%增加到9.3%。中国现代化建设的物质基础更加坚实,工业化、信息化、城镇化、市场化、国际化深入发展,社会主义建设事业全面推进。人民生活实现从温饱不足到总体小康的历史跨越,人均国民总收入相当于世界平均水平的比例从2005年的24.9%提高到2010年的46.8%。实现从高度集中的计划经济体制到充满活力的社会主义市场经济体制的伟大历史转折,形成公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,市场在资源配置中的基础性作用明显增强,宏观调控体系日臻完善。覆盖城乡居民的社会保障体系逐步建立,文化、教育、科技、卫生、体育等社会事业全面发展。

实现从封闭半封闭到全方位开放的伟大历史转折。从建立经济特区到开放沿海、沿江、沿边、内陆地区,从引进外资到鼓励中国企业对外投资,从敞开国门搞建设到加入世界贸易组织,中国参与经济全球化和区域经济合作,对外开放水平不断提高。进出口总额从1978年的206亿美元增加到2010年的29740亿美元。1979年至2010年,累计使用外商直接投资10483.8亿美元。迄今同163个国家和地区建立了双边经贸合作机制,签署10个自由贸易区协定,同129个国家签署双边投资保护协定,同96个国家签署避免双重征税协定,成为贸易和投资自由化便利化的积极实践者。中国根据加入世界贸易组织的承诺逐步降低关税,关税总水平从加入世贸组织前的15.3%降到目前的9.8%,并取消了大多数非关税措施。中国积极构建总体稳定、均衡发展、互利共赢的大国关系框架,促进形成机遇共享、共同发展的周边合作局面,巩固并加强了同发展中国家传统友谊和团结合作,与各国相互依存、利益交融日益加深,与世界各国交流合作更加广泛。

为世界经济稳定发展作出重要贡献。2001年加入世界贸易组织以来,中国年均进口近7500亿美元商品,相当于为相关国家和地区创造了1400多万个就业岗位。过去10年,在华外商投资企业从中国累计汇出利润2617亿美元,年均增长30%。2000年至2010年,中国非金融类年度对外直接投资从不足10亿美元增加到590亿美元,有力促进了有关国家经济发展。2009年境外中资企业实现境外纳税106亿美元,聘用当地员工43.9万人。中国近年来对世界经济增长的贡献率均达到10%以上。在1997年亚洲金融危机引起周边国家和地区货币大幅贬值情况下,中国保持人民币汇率基本稳定,为区域经济稳定和发展作出了贡献。2008年国际金融危机发生后,中国积极参与二十国集团等全球经济治理机制建设,推动国际金融体系改革,参与各国宏观经济政策协调,参与国际贸易融资计划和金融合作,组织大型采购团赴海外采购,向陷入困境的国家伸出援手。中国认真落实联合国千年发展目标,成为全球唯一提前实现贫困人口减半国家,并根据自身能力积极开展对外援助。截至2009年底,中国累计向161个国家、30多个国际和区域组织提供了2563亿元人民币的援助,减免50个重债穷国和最不发达国家债务380笔,为发展中国家培训人员12万人次,累计派出2.1万名援外医疗队员和近1万名援外教师。中国积极推动最不发达国家扩大对华出口,并已承诺对所有同中国建交的最不发达国家95%的输华产品给予零关税待遇。

为维护世界和平、应对全球性挑战发挥重要作用。中国是唯一公开承诺不首先使用核武器、不对无核武器国家和无核武器区使用或威胁使用核武器的核国家。中国累计向联合国30项维和行动派出各类人员约2.1万人次,是派出维和人员最多的联合国安理会常任理事国。中国积极参与反恐、防扩散领域国际合作,向遭受严重自然灾害的国家提供人道主义援助并派出救援队,为打击海盗行为向亚丁湾、索马里海域派遣海军护航编队。中国参加了100多个政府间国际组织,签署300多个国际公约,成为国际体系的参与者、建设者和贡献者。中国是最早制定并实施《应对气候变化国家方案》的发展中国家,也是近年节能减排力度最大、新能源和可再生能源研发速度最快的国家之一。中国为应对国际和地区热点问题发挥了建设性作用,在朝核问题、伊朗核问题等热点问题上坚持劝和促谈,推动形成朝核问题六方会谈机制。中国同12个陆地邻国解决了历史遗留的边界问题,坚持通过对话谈判处理同邻国领土和海洋权益争端,以建设性姿态提出“搁置争议、共同开发”的主张,尽最大努力维护南海、东海及周边和平稳定。中国通过开展双边合作并参与区域次区域合作,致力于促进亚太地区共同发展繁荣。
   新中国成立以来特别是改革开放30多年的发展历程表明,中国是国际社会的重要成员,是推动国际政治经济秩序朝着更加公正合理方向发展并努力作出贡献的国家。

二、中国和平发展的总体目标

中国和平发展的不懈追求是,对内求发展、求和谐,对外求合作、求和平。具体而言,就是通过中国人民的艰苦奋斗和改革创新,通过同世界各国长期友好相处、平等互利合作,让中国人民过上更好的日子,并为全人类发展进步作出应有贡献。这已经上升为中国的国家意志,转化为国家发展规划和大政方针,落实在中国发展进程的广泛实践中。

实现国家现代化和人民共同富裕是中国和平发展的总体目标。20世纪70年代末实行改革开放后,中国制定并实施了“三步走”的现代化发展战略。第一步,实现国民生产总值比1980年翻一番,解决人民温饱问题。第二步,到20世纪末实现国民生产总值再翻一番,人民生活达到小康水平。这两步目标已经实现。第三步,到本世纪中叶中华人民共和国成立100年时,人均国民生产总值达到中等发达国家水平,人民生活比较富裕,基本实现现代化,建成富强民主文明和谐的社会主义现代化国家。“三步走”目标的核心任务是,提高人民物质文化生活水平,实现富民与强国的统一。同时,要随着综合国力的不断增强,履行相应的国际责任和义务。

全面建成惠及十几亿人口的更高水平的小康社会是中国和平发展的中长期目标。到2020年,中国将全面建成惠及十几亿人口的更高水平的小康社会,使中国成为工业化基本实现、综合国力显著增强、国内市场总体规模位居世界前列的国家,成为人民富裕程度普遍提高、生活质量明显改善、生态环境良好的国家,成为人民享有更加充分民主权利、具有更高文明素质和精神追求的国家,成为各方面制度更加完善、社会更加充满活力而又安定团结的国家,成为对外更加开放、更加具有亲和力、为人类文明作出更大贡献的国家。

实现“十二五”规划是中国和平发展的近中期目标。在全面建设小康社会目标指引下,《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十二个五年规划纲要》确立了“十二五”时期(2011—2015年)中国经济社会发展的指导思想、总体思路、目标任务和重大举措。今后5年,中国经济社会发展将坚持以科学发展为主题、以加快转变经济发展方式为主线,主要目标是:经济平稳较快发展,经济结构战略性调整取得重大进展,科技教育水平明显提高,资源节约和环境保护成效显著,人民生活持续改善,社会建设明显加强,改革开放不断深化。经过全国人民共同努力奋斗,使转变经济发展方式取得实质性进展,综合国力、国际竞争力、抵御风险能力显著提高,全面建成小康社会的基础更加牢固。同时,中国将积极开展国际交流合作,扩大和深化同各方利益汇合点,促进各国共同发展。

从温饱到小康再到中等发达水平,使人民生活更加富裕,集中体现了中国和平发展的战略意图。为了实现上述目标,中国决心在以下方面作出努力。

   ——加快转变经济发展方式
把经济结构战略性调整作为主攻方向。坚持扩大国内需求特别是消费需求,通过多种途径增强居民消费能力,调整优化国内投资结构,同步推进工业化、城镇化和农业现代化,促进经济增长由主要依靠投资和出口拉动向消费、投资、出口协调拉动转变,由主要依靠第二产业带动向依靠第一、第二、第三产业协同带动转变,由主要依靠增加物质资源消耗向主要依靠科技进步、劳动者素质提高、管理创新转变。深入实施科教兴国战略和人才强国战略,致力于建设创新型国家。坚持观念创新和体制创新,注意学习吸收其他国家的先进技术和管理经验,不断提高经济增长质量和效益。

着力突破制约发展的资源环境瓶颈。确立绿色、低碳发展理念,以节能减排为重点,加快构建资源节约、环境友好的生产方式和消费模式。推动循环经济发展,改善环境质量,构建安全、稳定、经济、清洁的现代能源产业体系,提升资源保障程度,促进人与自然和谐发展,实现经济发展与人口资源环境相协调,坚持探索一条科技含量高、经济效益好、资源消耗低、环境污染少、人力资源优势得到充分发挥的中国特色新型工业化道路。中国经济实现全面协调可持续发展,将为世界经济发展开辟更加广阔的空间。

——进一步挖掘自身资源和市场优势
中国拥有丰富的人力物力资源和比较完备的工业体系,将坚持以自力更生为主实现持续发展。预计到2015年,中国人才资源总量将达到1.56亿人,主要劳动年龄人口受过高等教育的比例将达到15%,人才资源对经济增长的贡献率将达到32%,可以为中国经济持续发展提供充足的优质劳动力。中国矿产资源和耕地面积总量居世界前列,粮食基本实现自给自足。尽管人均国内资源拥有量较低,但通过充分发挥市场配置功能和推动科技进步,可以最大限度减少中国经济社会发展对资源的依赖。中国将发挥原材料、装备以及消费品制造等产业优势,满足本国民众的物质需求,为世界市场提供更多优质产品和服务。

人口规模和经济总量决定了中国拥有巨大国内需求潜力。随着人均收入不断增加、国内投资稳步提高、区域发展战略深入推进,中国还将形成新的经济增长极和更大的市场空间。未来5年,中国消费结构将进一步提升,居民消费潜力将得到进一步释放,国内市场总体规模将位居世界前列,进口规模累计有望达到8万亿美元,这将给世界各国带来更多商机。

   ——加快构建和谐社会
中国将加快推进以改善民生为重点的社会建设,夯实社会和谐的民生基础。推进社会体制改革,建立健全基本公共服务体系,创新社会管理机制,提高社会管理水平,完善收入分配制度和社会保障体系,努力使全体人民学有所教、劳有所得、病有所医、老有所养、住有所居,形成社会和谐人人有责、和谐社会人人共享的生动局面,使发展成果惠及全体人民。

加强社会主义民主政治建设,积极稳妥推进政治体制改革,发展社会主义民主,建设社会主义法治国家,保障人民当家作主。继续依法实行民主选举、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督,保障人民的知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权,扩大公民有序政治参与。继续坚持各民族一律平等和民族区域自治,依法保障人民的宗教信仰自由,充分尊重并维护公民的基本人权和其他合法权益。
   ——实施互利共赢的开放战略
坚持对外开放的基本国策。奉行互利共赢的开放战略,充分利用经济全球化和区域经济合作提供的各种有利条件,实现对外开放由出口和吸收外资为主向进口和出口、吸收外资和对外投资并重转变,不断拓展新的开放领域和空间,完善开放型经济体系,提高开放型经济水平,以开放促发展、促改革、促创新。

加快转变外贸发展方式。继续积极参与国际分工,推动外贸发展从规模扩张向质量效益提高转变、从成本优势向综合竞争优势转变,大力发展服务贸易,扩大进口规模,促进国际贸易收支趋向基本平衡,反对贸易保护主义,妥善处理国际经贸摩擦。

努力提高利用外资水平。不断优化结构、丰富方式、拓宽渠道、提高质量,加快引进智力、人才、技术,引导外资投向重点领域和重点地区。保护外资企业在华合法权益,对国际资本和先进技术持开放态度,创造公平有序的投资环境。实施国家知识产权战略,大力提高知识产权创造、运用、保护和管理能力。

更加重视对外投资和合作。鼓励各类企业有序开展境外投资和合作经营,支持在境外开展技术研发投资合作,开展海外工程承包和劳务合作,扩大农业领域国际合作,深化国际能源资源开发互利合作。大力开展有利于改善东道国民生和增强东道国自主发展能力的项目合作,尊重当地宗教和风俗习惯,遵守驻在国法律,承担相应社会责任和义务,促进驻在国发展。优化对外援助结构,创新对外援助方式,提升对外援助效果。

有序扩大金融市场和金融业对外开放。构建服务高效、风险可控的金融体系,完善以市场供求为基础、有管理的浮动汇率制度,逐步实现人民币资本项目可兑换。既为各国对华开展贸易投资互利合作带来更大便利,也为维护国际货币金融市场稳定、促进经济全球化健康发展创造更好条件。

   ——创造和平国际环境和有利外部条件
中国坚持在和平共处五项基本原则的基础上同所有国家发展友好合作。同发达国家加强战略对话,增进战略互信,深化互利合作,妥善处理分歧,探索建立和发展新型大国关系,推动相互关系长期稳定健康发展。坚持与邻为善、以邻为伴、睦邻友好的方针,发展同周边国家和亚洲其他国家的友好合作关系,积极开展双边和区域合作,共同营造和平稳定、平等互信、合作共赢的地区环境。加强同广大发展中国家的团结,深化传统友谊,扩大互利合作,通过援助和投资等方式,真诚帮助发展中国家实现自主发展,维护发展中国家正当权益和共同利益。积极参与多边事务和全球性问题治理,承担相应国际义务,发挥建设性作用,推动国际政治经济秩序朝着更加公正合理的方向发展。深入开展同各国议会、政党、地方、民间等各方面交流合作,扩大人文领域对外交流,增进中国人民同各国人民的相互了解和友谊。

坚持奉行防御性的国防政策。中国有广阔的领土和辽阔的海洋,陆地边界2.2万多公里,大陆海岸线1.8万多公里。中国面临复杂多样的传统和非传统安全挑战,受到分裂势力和恐怖主义等威胁。推进国防现代化是中国合理的国家安全需求,是中国实现和平发展的必要保障。中国军队现代化的根本目的是捍卫国家主权、安全、领土完整,保障国家发展利益。中国国防开支是合理适度的,是与维护国家安全需要相适应的,中国不会也无意同任何国家搞军备竞赛,不会对任何国家构成军事威胁。中国坚持“人不犯我、我不犯人”,致力于和平解决国际争端和热点问题。中国重视加强国际军事交流,推动国际和地区安全合作,反对一切形式的恐怖主义。

三、中国和平发展的对外方针政策
中国作为国际社会的一员,对未来的世界怀有美好期待,坚持与和平发展相适应的国际关系理念和对外方针政策。

   ——推动建设和谐世界
维护世界和平、促进共同发展是中国外交政策的宗旨。中国倡导并致力于同世界各国一道推动建设持久和平、共同繁荣的和谐世界。认为这既是一个长期目标,又是一项现实任务。为了建设和谐世界,应努力做到:

政治上相互尊重、平等协商,共同推进国际关系民主化。国家不分大小、强弱、贫富,都是国际社会平等成员,都应受到国际社会尊重。维护联合国在世界事务中的核心地位,遵循联合国宪章宗旨和原则,恪守国际法和公认的国际关系准则,在国际关系中弘扬民主、和睦、协作、共赢精神。各国内部事务应由本国人民自己决定,世界上的事情应由各国平等协商,各国平等参与国际事务的权利应得到尊重和维护。

经济上相互合作、优势互补,共同推动经济全球化朝着均衡、普惠、共赢方向发展。努力建立公正、公开、合理、非歧视的多边贸易体制,使经济全球化成果惠及世界各国。携手落实联合国千年发展目标,使21世纪成为人人享有发展成果的世纪。

文化上相互借鉴、求同存异,尊重世界多样性,共同促进人类文明繁荣进步。大力提倡不同文明间对话和交流,消除意识形态偏见和隔阂,使人类社会一天比一天和谐和睦,让世界更加丰富多彩。

安全上相互信任、加强合作,坚持用和平方式而不是战争手段解决国际争端,共同维护世界和平稳定。通过协商对话增进信任、减少分歧、化解纠纷,避免使用武力或以武力相威胁。

环保上相互帮助、协力推进,共同呵护人类赖以生存的地球家园。提倡创新发展模式,走可持续发展道路,促进人与自然和谐发展。坚持共同但有区别的责任原则,加强环境保护和应对气候变化的国际合作。

——坚持独立自主的和平外交政策
中国人民坚持自己选择的社会制度和发展道路,不允许外部势力干涉中国内政。坚持在和平共处五项原则基础上,同所有国家发展友好合作,不同任何国家和国家集团结盟,不以社会制度和意识形态异同决定国家关系的亲疏。尊重各国人民自主选择社会制度和发展道路的权利,不干涉别国内部事务,反对以大欺小、以强凌弱,反对霸权主义和强权政治。坚持通过求同存异、对话协商解决矛盾分歧,不把自己的意志强加于人。坚持从中国人民的根本利益和世界人民的共同利益出发,根据事情本身的是非曲直确定立场和政策,秉持公道,伸张正义,在国际事务中积极发挥建设性作用。

中国坚决维护国家核心利益。中国的核心利益包括:国家主权,国家安全,领土完整,国家统一,中国宪法确立的国家政治制度和社会大局稳定,经济社会可持续发展的基本保障。

中国充分尊重各国维护本国利益的正当权利,在积极实现本国发展的同时,充分顾及他国正当关切和利益,绝不做损人利己、以邻为壑的事情。

中国把中国人民的利益同世界各国人民的共同利益结合起来,扩大同各方利益的汇合点,同各国各地区建立并发展不同领域不同层次的利益共同体,推动实现全人类共同利益,共享人类文明进步成果。

——倡导互信、互利、平等、协作的新安全观
中国倡导互信、互利、平等、协作的新安全观,寻求实现综合安全、共同安全、合作安全。
注重综合安全。在新的历史条件下,传统安全威胁和非传统安全威胁相互交织,安全内涵扩展到更多领域。国际社会需要强化综合安全观念,坚持综合施策、标本兼治,携手应对人类面临的多样化安全挑战。

追求共同安全。在经济全球化条件下各国命运休戚与共,国际社会应增强共同安全意识,既要维护本国安全,又要尊重别国安全关切。要摒弃冷战思维和同盟对抗,通过多边合作维护共同安全,协力防止冲突和战争。充分发挥联合国在维护世界和平与安全方面的作用,建立公平有效的共同安全机制。

促进合作安全。战争和对抗只会导致以暴易暴的恶性循环,对话和谈判是解决争端的唯一有效和可靠途径。要以合作谋和平、以合作保安全、以合作化干戈、以合作促和谐,反对动辄使用武力或以武力相威胁。

——秉持积极有为的国际责任观
作为世界上人口最多的发展中国家,中国把自己的事情办好,本身就是对世界负责任最重要的体现。作为国际社会负责任的国家,中国遵循国际法和公认的国际关系准则,认真履行应尽的国际责任。中国以积极姿态参与国际体系变革和国际规则制定,参与全球性问题治理,支持发展中国家发展,维护世界和平稳定。各国国情和发展阶段不同,应按照责任、权利、实力相一致的原则,着眼本国和人类共同利益,从自身国力出发,履行相应国际义务,发挥建设性作用。随着综合国力的不断增强,中国将力所能及地承担更多国际责任。

——奉行睦邻友好的地区合作观
中国同周边各国积极开展睦邻友好合作,共同推动建设和谐亚洲。主张地区各国相互尊重、增进互信、求同存异,通过谈判对话和友好协商解决包括领土和海洋权益争端在内的各种矛盾和问题,共同维护地区和平稳定。密切经贸往来和互利合作,推进地区经济一体化进程,完善现有区域次区域合作机制,对其他区域合作构想持开放态度,欢迎地区外国家在促进地区和平与发展中发挥建设性作用。中国不谋求地区霸权和势力范围,不排挤任何国家,中国的繁荣发展和长治久安对周边邻国是机遇而不是威胁。中国将始终秉承自强不息、开拓进取、开放包容、同舟共济的“亚洲精神”,永做亚洲其他国家的好邻居、好朋友、好伙伴。

四、中国和平发展是历史的必然选择
走和平发展道路是中国政府和人民继承中华文化的优秀传统、根据时代发展潮流和中国根本利益作出的战略抉择,是中国发展的内在需要。

——和平发展是中国历史文化的传承
中国文化自古就认为世界应是一个和谐整体,这个观念深深影响了中华民族的思想和行为,成为中国人处理人与人、人与自然乃至国与国关系的重要价值观。

中国人民历来崇尚“和而不同”、“天人合一”、“以和为贵”的理念,以和谐精神凝聚家庭、敦睦邻里、善待他人。和谐文化培育了中华民族热爱和平的民族禀性。举世闻名的“丝绸之路”是一条贸易之路、文化之路、和平之路,铭刻下中国古人追求同各国人民友好交流、互利合作的历史足迹。中国明代著名航海家郑和“七下西洋”,远涉亚非30多个国家和地区,展现的是中华灿烂文明和先进科技,留下的是和平与友谊。

中华民族以“海纳百川,有容乃大”的胸怀,接受一切有益的外来文化,促进了中外文化融合,留下了不少对外文化交流的千古佳话。中国人民具有强烈的集体意识和社会责任感,崇尚“己所不欲,勿施于人”,尊重不同文化、不同观念,注重推己及人、将心比心,不将自己的意志强加于人。对外待之以礼,实行睦近交远。

从5000多年文明史中走来的中国人民,继承了中华文化的优秀传统,又赋予这一文化新的时代内涵。

——和平发展是中国基本国情的要求
中国人口多、底子薄,用世界7.9%的耕地和6.5%的淡水资源养活着世界近20%的人口,经济社会发展成就要由13亿多人共享,不断满足众多人口生存和发展需求是巨大难题。2010年,中国人均国内生产总值约为4400美元,居世界100位左右。中国城乡、区域发展很不平衡,经济社会发展结构性矛盾突出,资源环境等发展的瓶颈制约突出,经济增长过于依赖物质资源投入,转变经济发展方式任务艰巨。中国自主创新能力较弱,在国际产业体系和贸易分工中仍处于产业链低端。中国人民生活水平还不高,社会保障体系还很不完善,与发达国家相比还有很大差距。

中国现代化是世界五分之一人口的现代化,这是一个很长的历史过程。这一过程中的困难和问题,无论规模还是难度,在当今世界都是绝无仅有的,在人类历史上也是罕见的。在相当长历史时期内,中国仍将是一个发展中国家,这就决定了中国必须集中力量推进现代化,集中精力解决发展和民生问题;始终需要和平稳定的国际环境,开展对外交流合作。即使中国将来强大起来,和平依然是发展的基本前提,没有理由偏离和平发展道路。基本国情、文化传统和国家根本利益、长远利益是中国和平发展的决定因素和内生动力。

——和平发展是顺应世界潮流的选择
和平与发展是当今时代的两大主题,和平、发展、合作是不可阻挡的世界潮流。当前,世界多极化、经济全球化深入发展,国际体系变革的要求突出,国际社会正面临越来越多新的历史课题。共同用好发展机遇,共同应对各种风险,成为各国人民的愿望。

经济全球化成为影响国际关系的重要趋势。不同制度、不同类型、不同发展阶段的国家相互依存、利益交融,形成“你中有我、我中有你”的命运共同体。人类再也承受不起世界大战,大国全面冲突对抗只会造成两败俱伤。

全球性挑战成为世界主要威胁。人类共同安全问题日益突出,恐怖主义、大规模杀伤性武器扩散、金融危机、严重自然灾害、气候变化、能源资源安全、粮食安全、公共卫生安全等攸关人类生存和经济社会可持续发展的全球性问题日益增多。任何国家都不可能单独解决这些问题,国际社会必须携手应对。如果不能通过全面持续的国际合作抑制各种负面因素,世界和平与发展将面临重大障碍,甚至可能遭受更大灾难。

世界多极化发展进程难以阻挡。新兴市场国家、区域集团和亚洲等地区力量不断发展壮大,各类非国家行为体迅速成长,借助经济全球化和社会信息化拓展影响,成为各国和国际舞台上的重要力量。

世界潮流浩浩荡荡,顺之则昌,逆之则亡。国际社会应该超越国际关系中陈旧的“零和博弈”,超越危险的冷战、热战思维,超越曾把人类一次次拖入对抗和战乱的老路。要以命运共同体的新视角,以同舟共济、合作共赢的新理念,寻求多元文明交流互鉴的新局面,寻求人类共同利益和共同价值的新内涵,寻求各国合作应对多样化挑战和实现包容性发展的新道路。要和平,不要战争;要发展,不要停滞;要对话,不要对抗;要理解,不要隔阂,乃大势所趋、人心所向。中国走和平发展道路,正是在这一时代大背景下的必然选择。

五、中国和平发展的世界意义

和平发展道路是中国这个世界上最大的发展中国家探索出的一条新型发展道路,随着时间的推移,这条道路已经并将进一步显示出其世界意义。这条道路的成功既需要中国人民坚持不懈努力,也需要外部世界理解和支持。

中国和平发展打破了“国强必霸”的大国崛起传统模式。建立殖民体系、争夺势力范围、对外武力扩张,是近代历史上一些大国崛起的老路。特别是在20世纪,追逐霸权、实力对抗、兵戎相见,使人类惨遭两次世界大战的浩劫。中国基于自己几千年历史文化传统,基于对经济全球化本质的认识,对21世纪国际关系和国际安全格局变化的认识,对人类共同利益和共同价值的认识,郑重选择和平发展、合作共赢作为实现国家现代化、参与国际事务和处理国际关系的基本途径。几十年来的实践证明,中国走和平发展道路走对了,没有任何理由加以改变。
   经济全球化和科技革命为更多国家提供了通过经济发展和互利合作实现振兴的历史条件,越来越多发展中国家走上快速发展的道路。正是因为这样,世界经济规模和发展空间才越来越大,国际社会抵御经济和金融危机的能力才明显增强,国际经济体系变革才有了更强劲的动力。中国和平发展顺应了这一世界发展大势,中国乐见并支持越来越多的发展中国家改变自身命运,也乐见和支持发达国家继续繁荣发展。

在世界发生翻天覆地变化的今天,无论什么主义、什么制度、什么模式、什么道路,都在经历时代和实践的检验。各国国情千差万别,世界上不存在最好的、万能的、一成不变的发展模式,只有最适合本国国情的发展道路。中国的发展道路形成于、立足于本国国情。中国深刻认识到走和平发展道路的重要性和长期性,认识到国内外环境变化的深刻性和复杂性,将更加注意总结和运用自身的成功经验,更加注意学习借鉴其他国家的有益经验,更加注意研究前进道路上的新问题、新挑战,为和平发展开辟更为广阔的前景。

中国发展离不开世界,世界繁荣稳定也离不开中国。中国取得的发展成就与世界各国友好合作密不可分,中国未来发展更需要国际社会理解和支持,我们衷心感谢所有理解、关心、支持、帮助中国发展的国家和人民。有十几亿人口的中国走和平发展道路,这是人类发展史上新的伟大探索和实践,不可能做得十全十美,我们欢迎一切友好建议和善意批评。我们真诚希望国际社会更加深入地了解中国源远流长的文明传统,尊重中国人民对国家主权、安全、领土完整和社会稳定的珍视,理解中国作为最大发展中国家需要逐步解决的各种发展难题,理解中国人民渴望彻底摆脱贫困、过上富裕日子的心情,相信中国人民走和平发展道路的诚意和决心,支持而不是阻碍中国走和平发展道路。

回顾历史,展望未来,我们坚信,一个繁荣发展的中国,一个民主法治的中国,一个和谐稳定的中国,必将为世界作出更大贡献。中国人民愿同世界各国人民一道,为实现人类美好理想而不懈努力。

Click here for a listing of PRC-issued white papers on various topics.

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Events

December 14, 2019 - 9:00am
Pasadena, California

Longtime instructor Guang-Li (David) Zhang, a graduate of the Shanghai Art Academy teaches beginner and advanced students Chinese Calligraphy in mixed lecture and workshop classes.