A food safety factory shutdown has Americans hunting for baby formula. Readying themselves for a covid-19 lockdown, Chinese in Beijing emptied store shelves. Emerging from lockdown, some in Shanghai are visiting well-provisioned markets. U.S.-China agricultural trade is booming, but many are still being left hungry. Food security, sustainability and safety remain issues.
Order of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek Supplementing the Act of Surrender 1945
Order of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek supplementing the Act of Surrender
9 September 1945
Immediately following the signing of the Act of Surrender ending the war in the China Theatre, General Ho Ying-chen handed Order No. 1 of Generalissimo Chiang to Lieut. Gen. Okamura Yasutsugu as a supplement to the Act of Surrender.
I. This is order No. 1 of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek to the Japanese forces in China, excluding Manchuria, Formosa, and French Indo-China north of 16 degrees of north latitude, which were surrendered under the act of 9 September 1945. This order supplements the acts of surrender to the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers and his General Order No. 1.
II. The Japanese Commanders surrendering the Japanese forces in the areas named above will issue the following order to and insure compliance of such order by all forces under their command.
1. The Emperor of Japan, the Japanese government and the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters have recognized complete military defeat of the Japanese military forces by the Allied forces and have surrendered unconditionally all Japanese forces to the Allied Powers.
2. All the Japanese ground, sea, air, and auxiliary forces within China, excluding Manchuria, Formosa and Indo-China north of 16 degrees of north latitude, have been surrendered unconditionally to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and henceforth all such surrendered Japanese forces will be subject to the control of the Generalissimo. Their movements and activities will be dictated by him, and they will obey only orders or proclamations issued or authorized by him, or orders of their Japanese commanders based upon his instructions.
3. The surrendered Japanese forces are now non-combatant troops and all hostilities will cease. All such Japanese forces will remain at the stations they now occupy and await further orders from the Generalissimo. They will assemble, preserve without damage, and turn over to forces specified by the Generalissimo all arms, ammunition, equipment, supplies, records, information and assets of any kind belonging to the Japanese forces and auxiliaries.
4. All Japanese aircraft, naval units and merchant ships in the areas named above will be held without damage where they are at present located, except those stated in the Generalissimo’s proclamation No. 1. Boats on the Yangtze will be assembled at Ichang. Explosives aboard vessels will be removed immediately to safe storage ashore.
5. Commanders of the Japanese military units and civilian auxiliaries will maintain discipline and order and will be responsible for the behaviour of their troops. They will see that their forces do not harm or molest inhabitants, or pillage, loot, or bring unauthorized damage to their property.
6. With respect to the United Nations prisoners of war and civilian internees in the hands of the Japanese or Japanese controlled authorities:
1. The safety and well being of all United Nations prisoners of war and civilian internees will be scrupulously preserved, to include the administrative and supply services essential to provide adequate food, shelter, clothing, and medical care until such responsibility is undertaken by the Generalissimo or his authorized representatives.
2. Each camp or other place of detention of United Nations prisoners of war and civilian internees together with its equipment, stores, records, arms, and ammunition will be delivered immediately to the command of the senior officer or designated representative of the prisoners of war and civilian internees.
3. As directed by the Generalissimo, or his duly authorized representatives, prisoners of war and civilian internees will be transported to places of safety where they can be accepted by Allied authorities.
4. The Supreme Headquarters in China, Formosa and Indochina of each of the Japanese military forces and auxiliaries which have surrendered to the Generalissimo will furnish him within time limit of this order, complete lists' of all United Nations prisoners of war and civilian internees indicating their location.
7. Pending further orders the Japanese forces surrendered to the Generalissimo will continue to operate their lines of services and supply essential to provide food, clothing, medical and other subsistence supplies to feed and supply their own forces and persons for whom they are responsible.
8. Responsible Japanese or Japanese controlled military and civil authorities will insure that:
1. All Japanese mines and minefields and other obstacles to movement by land, sea, and air, wherever located will be removed according to instructions of the Generalissimo or his representatives.
2. All safety lanes are to be kept open and clearly marked pending accomplishment of the above.
3. All land, water, and air transportation and communications facilities and equipment are to be held intact and maintained in good condition.
4. All military installations and establishment including airfields, seaplane bases, aircraft defences, ports and naval bases, storage depots, permanent and temporary land end coastal fortifications, fortresses, and other fortifications, installations and establishments, all factories, plants, ships, research institutions, laboratories, testing storage depots, permanent and plans, drawings and inventions designed or intended to produce or to facilitate the production on and of all implements of war and other material and property used by or intended for use by military or semi-military organizations in connection with its operations are to be held intact and maintained in good condition.
III. The Supreme Headquarters in China, Formosa, and French Indo-China of the forces which have been surrendered to the Generalissimo within the time limit of the receipt of this order will furnish complete information for their respective areas concerning the following:
1. Lists of all land, air, and anti-aircraft units showing locations and strengths in officers and men.
2. Lists of all aircraft military, naval, and civil, giving complete information as to the number, type, location, and condition of such aircraft.
3. Lists of all Japanese and Japanese controlled naval vessels, surface and submarines and auxiliary naval craft in or out of commission and under construction, giving their position and condition.
4. List of, and position and condition of, all Japanese and Japanese controlled merchant ships of over 100 gross tonnes in or out of commission and under construction, including merchant ships formerly belonging to any of the United Nations which are now in the Japanese hands.
5. Complete and detailed information accompanied by maps, showing locations and layouts of all the mines, minefields, and other obstacles to movement by land, sea, or air, and the safety lanes in connection therewith.
6. Locations and descriptions of all military installations and establishments, including airfields, seaplane bases, anti-aircraft defenses, ports and naval bases, storage depots, permanent and temporary land and coast fortifications, fortresses and other fortified areas.
7. Location of all camps and other places of detention of United Nations prisoners of war and civilian internees required under paragraph II F above.
IV. The Supreme Headquarters in China, Formosa, and Indo-China of the forces surrendered to the Generalissimo shall be prepared, on instructions from the occupation commanders representing the Generalissimo to furnish the names and addresses of Japanese civilians residing in their respective areas and to collect and deliver all arms in the possession of such Japanese civilian population. The Headquarters named above will immediately notify all Japanese civilians that until further notice from appropriate authorities representing the Generalissimo they will remain in the vicinity of their present residence and will keep the local Japanese commander advised of their whereabouts.
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