Will Hong Kong continue to be a vital global business hub?
National Bureau of Statistics of China, "Statistical Communiqué on Labor and Social Security Development in 2008", May 22, 2009
Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (MOHRSS)
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)
Under the correct leadership of CPC Central Committee and State Council, local government at all levels were in accordance with the scientific concept of development and building a harmonious socialist society, by further intensify the work of employment, as well as improving the social security system construction, promote a harmonious and stable labor relations, earnestly safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of laborers, steady carry forward the wage income distribution system reform, implement of “Talents Strengthening the Nation” strategy, deepen the reform of the personnel system to strengthen the development of qualified personnel, and human resources and legal system of social security and infrastructure, the labor and social security development achieved remarkable results in 2008.
I. Labor and Employment
National employment at year-end stood at 774.80 million persons, went up 4.90 million persons year-on-year. Of the total, the employment in primary industry reached 306.54 million persons, occupied 39.6 percent of national employment; that of secondary industry amounted for 211.09 million persons, accounted for 27.2 percent; that of tertiary industry totaled 257.17 million persons, took up 33.2 percent. The employment at year-end in urban areas valued at 302.10 million persons, increased 8.60 million persons, year-on-year. Of the total, the employment at year-end in urban units accounting for 121.93 million persons, rose by 1.69 million persons year-on-year. The on-duty staff and workers at year-end in urban units standing at 115.15 million persons, growing 8.8 thousand persons year-on-year.
The migrant workers hit 225.42 million persons at year-end, of the total, the number of migrant workers for work out side hometown totaled 140.41 million persons.
The new employment in urban areas was 11.13 million persons, 5 million laid-off and unemployed workers had found new jobs, of which, 1.43 million persons which have difficulties in employment are re-employed. The urban registered unemployed persons totaled 8.86 million, and registered urban unemployment rate was 4.2 percent. At the end of 2008, 996.5 thousand households so-called “Zero Employment Families” achieved at least one person per household employment, accounting for 99.9 percent of the total. Organized 34 thousand students engaged in “Educational, Agricultural, and Medical Support and Poverty Alleviation Project”.
At the end of 2008, a total of 217 thousand foreigners with working permits in China; for Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau employment working permits in the Mainland of China accounted for 89 thousand persons.
The supervision and management of human resources market has been strengthened, explored guidance and norms of network recruitment market, actively promote regional development and cooperation of human resources. The national total number of employment agencies at year-end reached 37,208 units, of the total, public employment agencies amounted to 24,410 units. The annual successful cases by public employment agencies hit 20.20 million persons, an increase of 2.0 percent year-on-year.
II. Social Insurance
Constantly improve on the social security system, social insurance coverage continues to expanding, the number of participants and fund scope continued to grow. The revenue and expanses of five social insurance funds stood at 1,369.6 and 992.5 billion yuan, an increase of 288.4 and 203.7 billion yuan year-on-year, and growth rate was 26.7and 25.8 percent respectively.
(I) Pension Insurance
The number of persons participated in basic pension insurance in urban areas at year-end amounted to 218.91 million, a rise of 17.54 million persons year-on-year. Of the total, number of employees and retirees stood at 165.87 and 53.04 million, which rose 14.04 and 3.50 million persons respectively, year-on-year. The number of migrant workers participated in basic pension insurance hit 24.16 million, expanding 5.70 million persons year-on-year. The number of enterprises participated in basic pension insurance grew to 199.51 million persons, rose by 17.16 million persons year-on-year.
The treatment on basic pensions for enterprise retirees improved, and all in full payment on schedule. The number of retirees brought into the community management arrived at 34.61 million, account for 73.2 percent, a year-on-year rise of 2.0 percentage points, year-on-year.
The revenue of basic pension insurance fund topped 974.0 billion yuan, up by 24.3 percent. Of which, revenue collection totaled 801.6 billion yuan, grew 23.4 percent year-on-year. Financial subsidies at all levels of basic pension insurance fund stood at 143.7 billion yuan. The total expenses of fund topped 739.0 billion yuan, up by 23.9 percent year-on-year. The accumulated basic pension insurance fund at year-end accounted for 993.1 billion yuan.
There were 13 pilot provinces and municipalities such as Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Tianjin, Shanxi, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, and Xinjiang gained the accumulative basic pension insurance personal accounts fund amounted more than 110.0 billion yuan. There were 18 provinces, municipalities and the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps have been published provincial old-age insurance co-ordination system. In the following provinces and municipalities, such as: Shanxi, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Guangdong, and Chongqing carried out the preparations for old-age insurance system reform.
Totaled 33 thousand enterprises established enterprise annuities at the year-end, which covered 103.8 million employees. The accumulated balance of enterprises annuities at year-end stood at 191.1 billion yuan.
The number of persons participated in rural basic pension insurance at the year-end valued at 55.95 million, increased 4.24 million persons year-on-year. The number of peasants received the pensions topped 5.12 million, grew 1.20 million persons year-on-year. The pension insurance expenses amounted to 5,680 million yuan, a year-on-year increase of 42 percent. The accumulated basic pension insurance fund balance in rural area totaled 49.9 billion yuan. There were 1201 counties and cities in 27 provinces and municipalities have been carried out the work on social security of farmers whose land has been expropriated, 13.24 million farmers involved in the basic livelihood or the old-age security system.
(II) Medical Care Insurance
Population covered in basic medical care insurance in urban areas accounted for 318.22 million, expanded 95.11 million persons, year-on-year. Of which, employees in urban areas stood at 199.96 million, came up 19.76 million persons year-on-year; that of urban residents grew to 118.26 million, rose 75.35 million persons year-on-year. In the number of participants in basic medical care insurance, participated employees and retirees topped 149.88 and 50.08 million, went up 15.68 and 4.08 million persons respectively. The migrant workers participated in medical care insurance arrived at 42.66 million, a year-on-year increase of 11.35 million persons year-on-year.
The total revenue and expenses of urban basic medical care insurance fund stood at 304.0 and 208.4 billion yuan, climbed 34.7 and 33.4 percent respectively, year-on-year. The accumulative balance of urban basic medical care insurance fund stood at 343.2 billion yuan, of the total, co-ordination fund and personal accounts respectively arrived at 229.0 and 114.2 billion yuan.
(III) Unemployment Insurance
Population covered in the unemployment insurance at the year-end hit 124.00 million, increased 7.55 million persons year-on-year. Of the total, the participated migrant workers grew to 15.49 million persons, a year-on-year increase of 3.99 million persons. The number of beneficiaries from unemployment insurance valued at 2.61 million persons, declined 250 thousand persons year-on-year. A total of 930 thousand contract migrant workers got one-off living allowance whose labor contract have not renewed or premature terminated the labor contracts.
The revenue and expenses of unemployment insurance fund reached 58.5 and 25.4 billion yuan, came up by 24.0 and 16.5 percent, year-on-year. The accumulated balance of unemployment insurance fund at the year-end valued at 131.0 billion yuan.
(IV) Work Injury Insurance
Total number of population participated in work injury insurance at year-end arrived at 137.87 million persons, grew by 16.14 million persons year-on-year. Of which, migrant workers covered in work injury insurance totaled 49.42 million persons, with an increase of 9.62 million persons year-on-year. A total of 950 thousand persons affirmed as work injury, a year-on-year increase of 190 thousand persons. Assessment of disability levels amounted to 380 thousand persons, came up 20 thousand persons. Totaled 1.18 million persons gained benefits from work injury insurance, topped 220 thousand persons year-on-year.
The accumulative income and expenses of work injury insurance fund accounted for 21.7 and 12.7 billion yuan, expanding by 30.9 and 44.4 percent respectively. At the end of 2008, the balance of work injury insurance fund stood at 33.5 billion yuan, and reserve fund topped 5.0 billion yuan.
V) Maternity Insurance
Total number of population participated in maternity insurance hit 92.54 million, a year-on-year expanding of 14.79 million persons. A total of 1.40 million persons gained benefits, with a year-on-year surging of 270 thousand persons.
The revenue and expenses of maternity insurance fund accounted for 11.4 and 7.1 billion yuan, rose 36.0 and 28.6 percent year-on-year, respectively. The accumulative balance of fund at year-end amounted to 16.8 billion yuan.
(VI) Social Insurance Fund Intendance
Fund surveillance works has gradually strengthened, and management of the fund gained further regulating. Promoted the pension fund marketization management of enterprises, identified annuity fund management qualification of 58 enterprises in 38 agencies at year-end. Enterprise annuity fund portfolio for organizational management operation hit 588, with funds stood at 97.5 billion yuan.
III. Labor Relations and Safeguard the Legitimate Rights and Interests of Laborers
The cities above county level have established tripartite coordination mechanism for labor relations. Continuing promote the three-year labor contract system to implemented plans to promote the employing units and workers in accordance with the law, and to fulfill the signing of labor contracts, the signed rate of labor contracts kept steadily increased.
76 central enterprises which implement the segmentation between major and minor businesses and restructuring of the minor businesses have been audited and approved, which involved 5,315 restructuring units, and diverted and settled 887 thousand persons.
The labor dispute arbitration committees at all levels dealed with 964 thousands labor dispute cases (including unclosed dispute cases in previous year). Of which, mediation before putting on record totaled 693 thousand cases; that of labor disputes by putting on record amounted to 237 thousand cases. In the labor disputes cases which have put on record increased 98.0 percent year-on-year, involved 1214 thousand laborers. Of the total, collective labor dispute cases topped 22 thousand, which involved 503 thousand employees. The claim settlement of labor disputes cases after put on record was 623 thousand, with 86 percent of claim settlement rate. The accumulative unclosed cases amounted for 104 thousand at year-end.
Labor and social security supervision organization totaled 3291 in national wide at the end of 2008, formation rate was 94.7 percent. Full-time inspectors of labor and social security for Department of Labor and Social Security at all levels reached 23 thousand persons.
Nationwide focused on the special inspections such as wages payment of migrant workers, cleaned up and rectified the labor market order, punished illegal employments, cracked down on crimes, and employers comply with the "Labor Contract Law", and other special inspection activities, initiatively checked 1808 thousand employers throughout the year, 1712 thousand employers carried though the written examination, investigated and settled reported cases of complaints and various labor and social security illegal cases accounted for 481 and 483 thousand cases. Through labor security supervision of law enforcement, ordered the employers resigned the labor contract with 15617 thousand laborers, charged the employers reissue the wages amounted to 8.33 billion yuan to 6.98 million laborers, urged the 164 thousand employers made a supplementary payment topped 4.9 billion yuan for social insurances, and 1260 thousand employers transacted the social insurance registration and declaration, banned 7192 illegal occupation agencies, and ordered the employers reimbursed risk mortgages payments valued at 89 million yuan to the laborers.
IV. Wage Distribution
The annual average wages of on-duty staff and workers in urban units amounted to 29,229 yuan, a year-on-year jumping of 17.2 percent, after deducting the price factor, a real increasing of 11.0 percent. The annual average wage of on-duty staff and workers in state-owned units reached 31,005 yuan; that of in urban collective-owned units valued at 18,338 yuan; that of in other ownership units totaled 28,387 yuan. The daily average wages of on-duty staff and workers in urban units was 111.99 yuan, went up 12.68 yuan year-on-year.
General Office of State Council transmitted “Guidance on the Implementation of Merit Pay of Free Compulsory Education Schools”, further promoted the reform of wage system reform of institutions. Continued to regulating the allowances subsidies of civil servants. Through the adoption of various measures, settled historical wage arrears of state-owned enterprises totaled 34.9 billion yuan, which basically solved the problem of historical wage arrears. Over 28 provinces released the guideline of wages, and 20 provinces adjusted the minimum wage standard.
V. Personnel Management and Professional Talent Establishment
Fully implement “Talents Strengthening the Nation Strategy” to continuously strengthening build the high-level and highly skilled professionals.
Fulfilled governmental functions and earnestly paid adequate attention to the works on commendation and encouragement. Organized and undertook the appraisement and reorganization work on elected 319 national earthquake relief hero collectivities, and 522 national earthquake relief paragons hosted by CPC Central Committee, State Council and Central Military Commission. Coordinated appraisement and reorganization work on elected “Advanced Collectivities for Olympic Games and Paralympics Games in Beijing” totaled 339 persons, and “Advanced individual for Olympic Games and Paralympics Games in Beijing” accounted for 566 persons hosted by CPC Central Committee and State Council. Handle affairs jointly with 36 sectors to developed award in recognition of the honorary title at ministerial-level amounted to 49, gave commendation to the advanced collectivities totaled 1190, and advanced individuals reached 1968 persons.
There were 27 provinces and municipalities have been published the implementation or measurement of appointment system for institutions, the units which carried out appointment system occupied 74 percent of the total. 84 percent new staff through the open recruitment has been employed to the institutions.
Totaled 56 thousand military cadres have been settled in 2008. Selected 3,997 candidates for special government allowances, brought 400 high-skilled persons into the scope of special government allowances of the State Council for the first time. The total number of enjoy special government allowances reached 158 thousand persons. Selected and trained 3307 state-level candidates for “National Hundred, Thousand and Ten Thousand Talent Project”. Returned overseas students hit 69.3 thousand persons in 2008. At year-end, post-doctoral scientific research workstation arrived at 1670, R & D flows of post-doctor reached 1794. Enrolled post-doctoral researchers arrived at 8241 persons, an increase of 4.3 percent year-on-year. “Knowledge Update Project of Professional and Technical Personnel” made new progress.
The total of technical schools at year-end standing at 3,075 units, the number of students totaled at 3.98 million persons, grew by 310 thousand persons year-on-year. The technical schools socially oriented trainings accounted for 4 million persons, a year-on-year increase of 5.0 percent. The total number of vocational/technical training institutions accounted for 3,019 units, the non-governmental training institutions stood at 21 thousand units, totaled oriented various trainings hit 2,053 million persons, rising 2.9 percent year-on-year. A total of 6 million unemployed persons and laid-off workers attended reemployed training; 810 thousand persons attended entrepreneurship training, 9 million rural laborers participated in the skills training.
The total number of national vocational skills accreditation bodies topped 9,933 units; the vocational and technical appraisers amounted to 200 thousand persons. A total of 13.37 million persons took part in the vocational skills accreditation, jumping 9.0 percent year-on-year. Total of 11.32 million persons obtained varying levels vocational qualification certificates, with an increase of 14.0 percent year-on-year. Of which, totally 381 thousand persons obtained technician, senior technician occupational qualification, went up 60 thousand persons, with a rise of 19.0 percent year-on-year.
VI. Legal System of Human Resources and Social Security
Legal system of human resources and social security has been continuously strengthened. Actively implement the “Labor Contract Law”, “Employment Promotion Law”, “Labor Dispute Arbitration Law”, “Civil Service Law”, and other laws. “Social Insurance Law” has made positive progress; NPC Standing Committee has considered for the second time on the “Social Insurance Law of People's Republic of China (Draft)", and solicit public views on society. In September of 2008, the State Council promulgated the "Regulations for the Implementation of the Labor Contract Law of People's Republic of China".
The NPC Standing Committee examined and adopted the "Labor Contract Law", "Employment Promotion Law", and “Law of Mediation and Arbitration of Labor Disputes", the State Council promulgated the "Regulation on the Employment of the Disabled" and "Regulations on Paid Annual Leave for Employees". The labor security supervision agencies hit 3,271 at the end of 2007; a rate of labor security supervision organs was 94.2 percent. Labor and social security departments at all levels of Labor and Social Security with full-time ombudsman amounted to 22 thousand. A series of departmental rules has been published, including supporting regulations for “Civil Servant Law of People's Republic of China”: “Regulations on Paid Annual Leave for Employees in Institutions”, “Regulation on Paid Annual Leave for Employees in Enterprises”, “Appointment, Dismissal, Promotion and Demotion of Civil Servants (for Trial Implementation)”, “Appointment of Civil Servants by Transfer (for Trial Implementation)”, “Provisions on the Training of Civil Servants (for Trial Implementation)”, “Provisions on Recruitment of Civil Servants (for Trial Implementation)”, “Provisions on Encouragement of Civil Servants (for Trial Implementation)”, “Provisions on Appeal of Civil Servants (for Trial Implementation)”, and joint promulgated regulations with related sectors such as: “Temporary Provisions on Chinese Communist Party Discipline Sanctions for Violations of Petition Work”, “Measures for Punishing Behaviors Violating the Land Administrative Provisions”, “Provisional Regulation on Disciplining Dereliction of Duty in Environmental Protection Activity”, “Interim Provisions on Active Pre-Listed Military Reserve Officers”, and other regulations.
In order to continuously strengthen the institutional capacity and infrastructure construction, through the implementation of "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" project of labor and social security, “Innovative Talents”, “Educational, Agricultural, and Medical Support and Poverty Alleviation Project”, “Introduction of Intellectual”, “Academic Leaders”, “Pioneer Park for Returned Overseas Students”, and other key projects, which effectively promoting the development of social security of human resources. At the end of 2008, labor and social security development on the cause of "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" project for determining the urban and rural co-ordinate employment and training, social security service management capacity-building, and capacity-building of labor security services based on the 13 projects of three systems engineering, of the total, 12 projects has established, and basically carried out the funds with a total of about 11.32 billion yuan.
“JinBao Project” construction kept fast pacing with the basic completion of the national system design and planning standards, 25 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities) realized with all regulated cities networking, 87.3 percent cities above county levels achieved provincial data center networking, city-area network coverage up to 85 percent of the managing agency. Totally 168 million persons participated in basic pension insurance monitoring data to the Ministry of Labor and Social Security, the total uploaded data of unemployment registration and unemployment insurance network monitoring involved 3.80 million insurance persons. There are more than 229 cities above the county levels opened labor security services telephone number “12333”.
1. The communiqué does not include the statistics on Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR and Taiwan province.
2. The relevant data in this communiqué are the formal annual data and have a few differences with the part of the “Statistical Communiqué on the 2008 National Economic and Social Development ".
Mahtani and McLaughlin were on the ground in Hong Kong and provide this history of the Hong Kong pro-democracy movement centered around a cast of core activists, culminating in the 2019 mass protests and Beijing's crackdown.
IOKIBE Kaoru (University of Tokyo) will focus on U.S.-Japan relations in historical and contemporary contexts.
Mahtani and McLaughlin were on the ground in Hong Kong and provide this history of the Hong Kong pro-democracy movement centered around a cast of core activists, culminating in the 2019 mass protests and Beijing's crackdown.