A food safety factory shutdown has Americans hunting for baby formula. Readying themselves for a covid-19 lockdown, Chinese in Beijing emptied store shelves. Emerging from lockdown, some in Shanghai are visiting well-provisioned markets. U.S.-China agricultural trade is booming, but many are still being left hungry. Food security, sustainability and safety remain issues.
Joint Statement of the 7th China-EU Summit, December 9, 2004
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On December 8 2004, the 7th China-EU Summit was held in The Hague. A Joint Statement was issued after the meeting. The Joint Statement is as follows:
1. The Seventh Summit meeting between China and the European Union was held in The Hague, The Netherlands, on 8 December 2004. The EU was represented by the President of the European Council, Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Mr Jan Peter Balkenende, President of the European Commission, Mr Jose Manuel Barroso and the Secretary General/High Representative for the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy, Mr Javier Solana. China was represented by the Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, Mr Wen Jiabao.
2. Minister of Foreign Affairs of The Netherlands, Mr Bernard Bot, the European Commissioner in charge of External Relations, Ms Benita Ferrero-Waldner, the European Commissioner for Trade, Mr Peter Mandelson, Chinese Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Li Zhaoxing and Chinese Minister of Commerce, Mr Bo Xilai also participated in the Summit.
3. The Leaders reviewed the development of China-EU relations and welcomed the progress made since the Sixth Summit meeting. The two sides agreed that there had been frequent high-level visits and effective dialogues and cooperation in all fields between the two sides, guided by the two policy papers issued by both sides and further defined at the China-EU Seminar in February 2004. The two sides looked forward to celebrating their bilateral achievements on the occasion of the 30th Anniversary of official relations between China and the EU in 2005.
4. The Leaders briefed each other on developments in China and the EU. China welcomed the new European Commission and European Parliament, the enlargement of the EU and the agreement by EU Heads of State and Government on the treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. The two sides affirmed that the deepening and widening of the EU should contribute to further strengthening Sino-EU relations. The EU recognized China's achievements made under the ongoing social and economic reform.
5. The two sides affirmed that, due to the continuous development of China-EU relations in recent years, China and the EU will explore actively the feasibility of concluding a new China-EU framework agreement.
6. The two sides signed the Joint Declaration on Non-proliferation and Arms Control whereby they recognise each other as major strategic partners in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation. Both sides agreed that enhanced co-operation between China and the EU in the non-proliferation area will be conducive to advancing the multilateral non-proliferation process, as well as to expanding and deepening their comprehensive strategic partnership. They identified, in this context, priority areas for co-operation between the two sides.
7. China and the EU confirmed that China-EU relations in all aspects have developed significantly in the last years. In this context they discussed the issue of the EU arms embargo against China. The EU side confirmed its political will to continue to work towards lifting the embargo. The Chinese side welcomed the positive signal, and considered it beneficial to the sound development of the comprehensive strategic partnership between China and the EU.
Both sides reiterated their positions and agreed to continue consultations on this issue.China reaffirmed that political discrimination on this issue was not acceptable and should be immediately removed. The EU reaffirmed that work on strengthening the application of the European Union Code of Conduct on arms exports was continuing.
8. The EU side reaffirmed its continued adherence to the one China policy, and expressed its hope for a peaceful resolution of the Taiwan question through constructive dialogue. The Chinese side appreciated the EU's commitment to the one China policy and reiterated its principled position on the Taiwan question.
9. The Leaders believed that the China-EU human rights dialogue promoted mutual understanding and agreed to continue this dialogue, while making efforts to achieve more meaningful and positive results on the ground, as well as the related bilateral cooperation programme. They underlined their respect for international human rights standards provided for in relevant international human rights instruments, including on the rights of minorities, and their commitment to co-operate with UN human rights mechanisms. In this respect, China is committed to the ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) as soon as possible. They also noted the importance of the International Criminal Court in the global fight against genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. The Leaders underlined the importance of concrete steps in the field of human rights and reaffirmed their commitment to further enhance co-operation and exchanges in this field on the basis of equality and mutual respect.
10. The Leaders underlined that activities on facilitating people-to-people exchanges and co-operation in combating illegal migration are a priority for both sides. In the spirit of full reciprocity, leaders discussed issues of readmission and visa facilitation. They hoped for an early opening of negotiations on these issues, as soon as technically and juridically possible. Entry procedures were also discussed. The EU reaffirmed the importance of China-EU operational co-operation on combating illegal migration and trafficking in human being.
11. The Leaders, in welcoming the entry into force of the milestone Memorandum of Understanding on Visa and Related Issues Concerning Tourist Groups from the People's Republic of China (ADS), agreed that tourism would enhance people-topeople contacts between China and the EU and deepen mutual understanding. They stressed the need to ensure an efficient and smooth implementation of the modalities of the Memorandum of Understanding.
12. Both sides welcomed the dynamism of their trade relations, best illustrated by the EU becoming China's largest trading partner and China becoming the EU's second largest trading partner in 2004. The Leaders welcomed the China-EU Business Summit held on the sidelines of the Summit. They reiterated their commitment to maximize mutual benefits of such relation by improving market access and increasing investment opportunities for both sides.
The Leaders reiterated the importance of fully implementing their WTO commitments and strengthening the multilateral trading system. The EU agreed to continue to assist China's efforts in capacity building and both sides welcomed the launching of the second WTO support programme for China in 2004.
The Leaders welcomed the progress made in the DDA in July and the new momentum in the Doha Round of negotiations. They agreed to intensify their co-operation with a view to successfully preparing the WTO Ministerial Meeting in Hong-Kong. The two sides underlined that increased bilateral consultations have helped to make substantial progress in a number of trade issues, in particular the lifting of trade restrictions as a result of their increased co-operation regarding sanitary and phytosanitary measures and technical barriers to trade and pledged to further intensify their trade dialogue mechanisms with a view to solving remaining trade problems. The Leaders expressed their intention to continue and intensify the efforts made to fight violations of Intellectual Property Rights.
13. China reiterated its concern on the issue of full market economy status and underlined the significance it attaches to resolving this issue for deepening China-EU relations. The EU welcomed the positive orientation of China towards building a market economy. Both sides welcomed the creation of a working group aimed at actively identifying a practical solution to this issue.
14. During the Summit, the two sides signed the China-EU Customs Co-operation Agreement which is vital to facilitate trade and help combat customs violations and fraud such as counterfeiting, and renewed the China-EU Science and Technological Co-operation Agreement. The signing of the agreement on R&D co-operation on the peaceful use of nuclear energy between the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the Government of the People's Republic of China launches research co-operation on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and gives access to research facilities for researchers from both sides.
The Leaders also endorsed four financing agreements for new co-operation projects: the China-EU Information Society Project, the China-EU Managers Exchange and Training Programme, the China-EU Social Security Reform Project, and the Erasmus Mundus China Window project. These projects are under the programme of support for economic and social reform in China within the China-EU development cooperation, with EU funding amounting to ?61 million.
15. The Leaders noted with satisfaction progress of co-operation in all fields. The follow-up agreement on technical co-operation in satellite navigation (Galileo) signed in October 2004 enabled China to become the first non-EU country enjoying full participation in the Community framework. China's participation opens the doors for more tangible scientific and industrial collaboration projects. The two sides welcomed the new momentum in the energy dialogue after the successful 5th China-EU Energy Conference. The Leaders expressed their hope that the China-EU High-level Forum on Science and Technology (S&T) Policy and Strategy to be held in Beijing in May 2005 will promote the mutual understanding on S&T development strategy and deepen the S&T co-operation relations between China and EU and that the dialogue on co-operation in space science, applications and technology will lead to cooperation in joint projects between aerospace companies and research institutions from both sides.
16. The Leaders encouraged to promote China-EU inter-sectoral dialogue and cooperation. They welcomed the initiative on establishing an China-EU dialogue and co-operation mechanisms on employment and social affairs. The Leaders also welcomed first contacts since the last Summit on issues relating to macro-economic policy and the regulation of financial markets and agreed on a process of dialogue in related areas. They expressed satisfaction with the first talks and exchanges of views on issues related to balanced development, regional policies and rural development, and agreed
to hold an China-EU seminar on regional economic development next year.
The Leaders welcomed the China-EU Dialogue on Intellectual Property (IP), and on industrial and competition policy. They agreed to further explore possibilities for strengthening their co-operation in the IP area in particular through further consultation and co-operation between governments and enterprises, and through a closer co-operation of IP-related institutions, including staff exchanges. They supported the continued dialogue on the Information Society at a high level.
They noted with satisfaction the results of the second implementation meeting of the China-EU Maritime Agreement, at which both sides showed a significant convergence of views in respect of handling current and future challenges within the maritime policy context, and looked forward to further enhancing their bilateral cooperation on trade and maritime issues in the international fora. The Leaders, in welcoming the dialogue progress and the closer China-EU cooperation in civil aviation, agreed to further deepen co-operation in this field, including civil aviation industry and technology, and to solve as a matter of priority outstanding issues thereby opening the way for a potential future China-EU Civil Aviation Agreement. Progress will be reported at the next Summit. China expressed strong interest in strengthening technological co-operation and its willingness to participate in projects other than those in the China-EU civil aviation co-operation programme. An China-EU Aviation Summit will be jointly organised in the first half of 2005.
The Leaders expressed their hope that the European Economic and Social Committee and the China Economic and Social Council establish a regular dialogue between the civil society organisations of both sides, which should be based on the protocol signed by the Presidents of both institutions in 2002.
Both sides believed that, on the basis of the China-EU Legal and Judicial Cooperation Programme, strengthening the exchanges in the judicial field should be further explored, particularly in the co-operation of training legal professionals and seeking to establish a bilateral education and training institute.
17. The Leaders welcomed the fact that many Chinese students are following graduate studies in Europe through the China-EU education co-operation mechanism, particularly the recently launched Erasmus Mundus programme. They also welcomed the launching in the next academic year of a specific "China Window" within Erasmus Mundus. The two sides encouraged and supported further actions to strengthen education co-operation between China and the EU.
18. The Leaders welcomed the progress in the China-EU development co-operation programme, notably in the areas of economic and social reform, as well as environment and sustainable development. The EU side expressed its wish to see more rapid progress in other areas, particularly the support for the development of civil society. The two sides noted with satisfaction the substantial increase in the budget of the 2004 programme.
19. The Leaders underlined their close and productive dialogue on the ongoing negotiations for the establishment of the ITER Organisation among China, EU, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Russia, and the US. The EU expressed its satisfaction and gratitude to China for its continuing support of the EU ITER site. The Leaders looked forward to a rapid conclusion of the ITER site negotiation.
20. The Leaders reaffirmed their shared commitment to environmental protection andencouraged efforts to extend and deepen the high level dialogue in this area. They stressed that biodiversity conservation and integrated river basin management are fruitful areas for co-operation. They also agreed on the health and environmental benefits arising from reducing emissions from motor vehicles and agreed to continue to support China's introduction of the 'Euro' emission standards. Technology transfer, exchange of information on methodologies, policy tools and means of implementation as well as staff exchanges and the implementation of projects can all be used to develop a dynamic partnership on environmental issues. Both sides stressed the importance of further follow-up on the World Summit on Sustainable Development and of enhancing co-operation in the context of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol and welcomed the Protocol's entry into force in 2005.
21. The Leaders underlined the importance of the implementation of the Declaration of the Commitment on HIV/AIDS adopted at the General Assembly of the United Nations in 2001. In face of the truly global nature of the epidemic, both sides recognised the importance of increased co-operation to combat HIV/AIDS as well as other newly emerging infectious diseases, appreciated the constructive resolutions on strengthening the capability of global public health adopted at the General Assembly of the United Nations. They underlined the importance of the increasing availability of anti-retroviral drugs and the necessity of preventive measures, including development of vaccines and microbicides, harm reduction approaches and promotion of safer and responsible sexual behaviour. The EU welcomed China's recent adoption of the newly revised "Law on Diseases Prevention and Control" covering nondiscrimination against persons with infectious diseases, pathogeny carriers and persons with suspected infectious diseases as an important step to counter stigmatisation and judgmental approaches to persons at risk or infected. The EU welcomed that the HIV/AIDS programme of the Global Fund recently started in China. China appreciated the EU role as a major contributor for this Fund, and encouraged EU's continuous and vigorous financial assistance to China's efforts in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment.
22. The Leaders had an in-depth exchange of views on international and regional issues of common interest. Leaders reaffirmed the commitment of China and the EU to promoting peace, security and sustainable development throughout the world, with the United Nations at its core. They expressed their strong support for revitalization and reform of the UN in order to be able to cope with existing and new challenges and threats, and underlined that the report of the UN High-Level Panel should serve as a basis for discussions in this regard and the need for any plan of reform to be decided by consensus through consultation. The two sides stressed the importance of achieving the Millennium Development Goals and attached considerable importance to enhancing bilateral and multilateral co-operation in this area. In this regard, they underlined their strong desire to make the UN Major Event 2005 a success, and agreed to support a comprehensive, balanced approach in the implementation of the Millennium Declaration and of the Millennium Development Goals, as well as in handling issues related to peace and security. A successful outcome of the 13th session of the Commission for Sustainable Development (April 2005) would be of importance in this regard.
23. The two sides reaffirmed their commitment to the fight against terrorism and reiterated that anti-terrorism action must accord with the purpose and principles of the UN Charter and the norms of relevant International Law and fully respect human rights. The two sides underlined the leading role of the United Nations with respect to counter-terrorism, and the importance of the universal implementation of all UN Security Council resolutions, UN conventions and protocols related to counterterrorism. They undertook to support the work for a draft Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism. The two sides underlined the importance of enhanced regional and interregional co-operation and referred in particular to the co-operation developed in the framework of ASEM and of the ASEAN Regional Forum.
24. The Leaders expressed deep concern over the destabilising effect of regional conflicts. They welcomed the restoration of full sovereignty to Iraq and expressed their commitment to the implementation of UNSCR 1546 in support of the political process in Iraq, including elections in 2005. They agreed to work together in the multilateral effort for Iraq's reconstruction and the restoration of peace and prosperity.
China and the EU appreciated their respective efforts in facilitating a political resolution of the Iran nuclear issue. China and the EU welcomed the agreement reached between France, Germany and the UK, supported by the High Representative, and Iran on Iran's suspension of enrichment related and reprocessing activities. Both China and the EU hoped that progress will be made in the negotiations of the EU with Iran on a mutually acceptable agreement on long-term arrangements, that should include objective guarantees that Iran's nuclear program is exclusively for peaceful purposes, and that the Iran nuclear issue will be resolved within the framework of the
IAEA at the earliest opportunity.
The two sides stressed their firm commitment to the reconstruction and stabilization of Afghanistan, in co-operation with the Afghan Government. They welcomed the October presidential elections. The Leaders agreed on the goal of a nuclear-weapons free Korean Peninsula and expressed the conviction that the issue could be settled peacefully through dialogue. The EU praised China's crucial and active role in promoting the continuation of the Six-Party Talks. The Leaders expressed the hope that the DPRK would continue to take positive steps to participate more fully in the international community. The Leaders exchanged views on the situation in Burma/Myanmar.
25. The Leaders expressed their satisfaction with the excellent atmosphere and the substantial results achieved at this Seventh Summit meeting. They stressed their resolve to further expand and deepen China-EU relations, towards a rapidly maturing comprehensive strategic partnership between China and the EU.
Original source: http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjdt/2649/t174512.htm
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Tensions evident in the recent European Union-China virtual summit reflect the increasing skepticism in Europe toward China and the worries over Ukraine and economic ties as well as human rights and environmental issues.