Carl Minzner argues that China's reform era is ending, and outlines the potential outcomes that could result.
Text of the United States-China Accord for Cultural Exchange, 1984
April 30, 1984
Implementing Accord for Cultural Exchange in 1984 and 1985 Under the Cultural Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People's Republic of China
The Government of the United States of America and the Government of the People's Republic of China (hereafter referred to as ``both sides''), desirous of enhancing friendly relations between the peoples of the two countries, and strengthening cultural cooperation between the two countries, based on the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty, of equality, reciprocity and mutual benefit, and in accordance with the Cultural Agreement signed on January 31, 1979, by the two governments, have agreed on the following program of cultural exchange between the two countries for the period 1984 and 1985.
I.Culture and the Arts
1. An official American Cultural Delegation, which might include but would not be limited to participants from the United States Information Agency, will visit China.
2. An official Chinese Cultural Delegation will visit the United States in the fall of 1985 to discuss and sign the 1986 - 1987 Implementing Accord to the U.S.-China Cultural Agreement.
3. Both sides will send one high quality small scale performing arts group to the other country for visits and performances during the life of the Accord. During such visits, artists may participate in workshops and give demonstrations and master classes. The specifics for sending performing arts groups will be decided through specific agreements signed by relevant organizations designated by each side respectively. Both sides agree to exchange views and propose suggestions on the types of performing arts groups to be exchanged during the life of the next implementing accord, so that preparations can begin early.
4. Both sides will hold one high quality art exhibit in the other country during the life of the Accord. This will be carried out by the U.S. side with the exhibit ``Town and Country: Images of Urban and Rural Life in America, Paintings from the Brooklyn Museum'' in China in 1984, and by the Chinese side with the exhibit ``Chinese Traditional Painting: Five Modern Masters'' in the United States in 1984 and 1985. The specifics for sending art exhibits will be decided through specific agreements signed by relevant organizations designated by each side respectively. Both sides agree to exchange views and propose suggestions on the types of art exhibits to be exchanged during the life of the next implementing accord, so that preparations can begin early.
5. Both sides will encourage the exchange of films, including the exchange of Film Weeks and film delegations to participate in Film Week activities. Both sides agree that exchange projects in this field will be decided through specific agreements signed by relevant organizations designated by each side respectively.
6. Both sides will encourage the sending of artists and experts in fields such as music, dance, drama, painting, sculpture, arts and crafts, photography and film to the other country for visits, short-term lectures, professional exchanges and possible performances and exhibits.
II. Journalism, Broadcasting, and Television
1. Both sides will continue to encourage personnel and professional exchanges and facilitate the exchange of scripts and materials between the Voice of America and Radio Beijing.
2. The Director of the Voice of America and the Director of Radio Beijing will each lead a delegation for an exchange of visits and the Voice of America and Radio Beijing will exchange broadcasters for visits and professional exchange during the life of the Accord.
3. Both sides will encourage and facilitate the exchange of personnel and materials in the fields of print journalism, television, and radio. Both sides agree that exchange projects in these fields will be decided through separate discussion between relevant organizations from both countries.
III. Literature, Translation and Publication
Both sides will encourage the exchange of writers, translators and publishers in order to further mutual understanding of each other's culture, history and society.
IV. Libraries and Archives
1. Both sides will continue to facilitate the exchange of personnel, publications, and library materials between the Library of Congress and the National Library of China, as well as between other libraries in the two countries.
2. Both sides will continue to facilitate the exchange of personnel and archival materials between the National Archives and Records Service of the United States and other American archival organizations and the Chinese National Archives Bureau.
V. Education, Social Sciences, and Sports
Both sides agree that exchange projects in education, the social sciences and sports will be decided through separate discussions between relevant organizations from both countries.
VI. Parks and Related Matters
Both sides will encourage continued exchange of personnel and professional cooperation between the National Park Service of the United States and the Bureau of Landscape Architecture under the Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental Protection of China. Both sides agree that specific exchange projects will be decided through separate discussions between the two above-mentioned organizations.
VII. Private Exchanges
Both sides will encourage and promote the expansion of non-governmental cultural exchanges to facilitate the future development of friendly relations between the peoples of the two countries.
VIII. Financial Provisions
1. Both sides agree that the necessary expenses for mutual visits by official delegations or individuals for official projects under this Accord will be borne as follows:
(A) The sending side will bear the two-way international travel expenses of the delegations or individuals.
(B) The receiving side will bear the expenses of board and lodging, transportation, and medical care or medical insurance, necessary to ensure the continuation of the program, when the delegation or individual is in its territory.
2. Both sides agree that payment of expenses for exchanges under this Accord involving exhibits, such as works of art, handicrafts, historical or archaeological objects, space objects, and other objects of special value or artistic interest, including expenses for accompanying staff, will be decided through specific agreements signed separately and based on the differing conditions in the two countries.
3. Both sides agree that the financial provisions for official projects under this Accord which involve mutual exchange of delegations of performing artists, including staff accompanying the delegations, will be as follows:
(A) The sending side will bear the delegations' two-way international travel expenses or the expenses from the receiving side to a third country, as well as the international transportation expenses of the properties, costumes, musical instruments, etc.
(B) The organization or organizations designated by the receiving side as host organization(s) will bear the expenses of the delegations' board and lodging, travel, and medical care or medical insurance necessary to ensure the continuation of the program within the receiving country, and transportation expenses of the properties, costumes, musical instruments, etc., while in the receiving country, and provide the necessary interpreters.
(C) Other financial matters will be negotiated separately.
4. If either side encounters financial difficulties in the course of carrying out an individual project, a suitable adjustment or postponement of the project will be decided upon by consultation between the two sides.
IX. Entry Into Effect
The present Accord will enter into effect on the day of signature.
Done in duplicate at Beijing on this 30th day of April 1984, in the English and Chinese languages, both texts being equally authentic.
For the Government of the United States of America:
For the Government of the People's Republic of China:
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