PRC State Council, “China's Policies on Asia-Pacific Security Cooperation (中国的亚太安全合作政策),” January 11, 2017

This is the official English version of this government white paper. It was issued by the State Council Information office. The Chinese version follows the English version.
January 11, 2017
Print
BEIJING, Jan. 11 (Xinhua) -- China's State Council Information Office on Wednesday issued a white paper on China's policies on Asia-Pacific security cooperation.
 
Following is the full text:
 
China's Policies on Asia-Pacific Security Cooperation
The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China January 2017
First Edition 2017
 
Contents
 
Preface 1
I. China's Policies and Positions on Asia-Pacific Security Cooperation 2
II. China's Security Vision for the Asia-Pacific Region 8
III. China's Relations with Other Major Asia-Pacific Countries 12
IV. China's Positions and Views on Regional Hotspot Issues 18
V. China's Participation in Major Multilateral Mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific Region 23
VI. China's Participation in Regional Non-Traditional Security Cooperation 32
Conclusion 39
 
Preface
 
The Asia-Pacific region covers a vast area with numerous countries and 60 percent of the world's population. Its economic and trade volumes take up nearly 60 percent and half of the world's total, respectively. It has an important strategic position in the world. In recent years, the development of the Asia-Pacific region has increasingly caught people's attention. It has become the most dynamic region with the strongest potential in the world. All parties are attaching greater importance to and investing more in this region. With the profound adjustment of the pattern of international relations, the regional situation of the Asia-Pacific area is also undergoing profound changes.
 
China is committed to promoting peace and stability in this region. It follows the path of peaceful development and the mutually beneficial strategy of opening up, and pursues friendly cooperation with all countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. It has participated in regional cooperation in an all-round way and taken active steps in response to both traditional and non-traditional security challenges, contributing to lasting peace and common prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region.
 
I. China's Policies and Positions on Asia-Pacific Security Cooperation
 
Currently, the situation in the Asia-Pacific region is stable on the whole, with a strong momentum for peace and development. The Asia-Pacific region is a stable part of the global landscape. To promote peace and seek stability and development is the strategic goal and common aspiration of most countries in the region. Political mutual trust among countries has been strengthened, and major countries have frequently interacted and cooperated with one another. To address differences and disputes through negotiation and consultation is the major policy of countries in the region. Regional hotspot issues and disputes are basically under control.The region has secured steady and relatively fast growth, continuing to lead the world in this respect. Regional integration has gathered pace, with booming sub-regional cooperation. Free trade arrangements in various forms have made steady progress, and a new phase has emerged for dynamic connectivity building. However, the Asia-Pacific region still faces multiple destabilizing and uncertain factors. The nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula is complex and sensitive; the reconciliation process in Afghanistan remains slow; and disputes over territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests continue to unfold. Some countries are increasing their military deployment in the region, certain country seeks to shake off military constraints, and some countries are undergoing complex political and social transformations. Non-traditional security threats such as terrorism, natural disasters and transnational crimes have become more prominent. Asia's economy still faces significant downward pressure as a result of its structural problems as well as external economic and financial risks.
 
As an important member of the Asia-Pacific family, China is fully aware that its peaceful development is closely linked with the future of the region. China has all along taken the advancement of regional prosperity and stability as its own responsibility. China is ready to pursue security through dialogue and cooperation in the spirit of working together for mutually beneficial results, and safeguard peace and stability jointly with other countries in the region.
 
First, we should promote common development and lay a solid economic foundation for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. To enhance the convergence of economic interests is an important basis for sound state-to-state relations. Common development provides a fundamental safeguard for peace and stability, and holds the key to various security issues. Considerable achievements have been made in economic cooperation. On this basis, we should accelerate the process of economic integration and continue to advance the building of free trade areas and connectivity as well as comprehensive economic and social development. We should implement the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and narrow the developmental gap in the region, so that all countries and people of all social strata will enjoy the dividends of development, and the interests of countries will be more closely intertwined.
 
Focusing on common development, China has put forward and actively promoted the Belt and Road Initiative and initiated the establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Silk Road Fund. We welcome continued participation by all countries for mutually beneficial outcomes.
 
Second, we should promote the building of partnerships and strengthen the political foundation for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific countries have unique diversities. Countries may become partners when they have the same values and ideals, but they can also be partners if they seek common ground while reserving differences. The key is to remain committed to treating each other as equals and carrying out mutually beneficial cooperation. How major countries in the Asia-Pacific region get along with each other is critical for maintaining regional peace and development. Major countries should treat the strategic intentions of others in an objective and rational manner, reject the Cold War mentality, respect others' legitimate interests and concerns, strengthen positive interactions and respond to challenges with concerted efforts. Small and medium-sized countries need not and should not take sides among big countries. All countries should make joint efforts to pursue a new path of dialogue instead of confrontation and pursue partnerships rather than alliances, and build an Asia-Pacific partnership featuring mutual trust, inclusiveness and mutually beneficial cooperation.
 
China calls for the building of a new model of international relations centered on mutually beneficial cooperation. China is committed to building partnerships in different forms with all countries and regional organizations. China has committed itself to working with the United States to build a new model of major-country relations featuring non-conflict, non-confrontation, mutual respect, and mutually beneficial cooperation. China is committed to deepening its comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination with Russia and establishing a closer partnership with India. It is also pushing for the improvement of its relations with Japan. Chinese leaders have repeatedly elaborated on the concept of a community of shared future on many different occasions. China is working to construct a community of shared future for countries along the Lancang-Mekong River and between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) as well as in Asia and the Asia-Pacific area as a whole.
 
Third, we should improve the existing regional multilateral mechanisms and strengthen the framework for supporting peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. All parties concerned should adhere to multilateralism, oppose unilateralism, further support the development of regional multilateral security mechanisms, push for close coordination between relevant mechanisms, and play a bigger role in enhancing mutual understanding and trust, and expanding exchanges and cooperation in the field of security dialogues.
 
Committed to pushing forward the building of regional security mechanisms, China initiated with relevant countries the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), Six-Party Talks, Xiangshan Forum, China-ASEAN Ministerial Dialogue on Law Enforcement and Security Cooperation, and Center for Comprehensive Law Enforcement and Security Cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong Sub-Region. China has actively supported the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) in its capacity and institution building, and participated in the ASEAN-led multilateral security dialogues and cooperation mechanisms. Within various regional mechanisms, China has made a large number of cooperation proposals in the field of non-traditional security, which have strongly promoted relevant exchanges and cooperation. China will shoulder greater responsibilities for regional and global security, and provide more public security services to the Asia-Pacific region and the world at large.
 
Fourth, we should promote the rule-setting and improve the institutional safeguards for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. To live together in peace, countries should follow the spirit of the rule of law, the international norms based on the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and the widely recognized rules of fairness and justice. International and regional rules should be discussed, formulated and observed by all countries concerned, rather than being dictated by any particular country. Rules of individual countries should not automatically become "international rules," still less should individual countries be allowed to violate the lawful rights and interests of others under the pretext of "rule of law."
 
China has firmly upheld and actively contributed to international law, and regional rules and norms. To practice the rule of law in international relations, China, together with India and Myanmar, initiated the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence in 1954. China has acceded to almost all inter-governmental international organizations and more than 400 international multilateral treaties so far. China is committed to upholding regional maritime security and order, and enhancing the building of institutions and rules. In 2014 China presided over the adoption of the updated Code for Unplanned Encounters at Sea at the Western Pacific Naval Symposium held in China. China and ASEAN countries will continue to fully and effectively implement the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) and strive for the early conclusion of a Code of Conduct (COC) on the basis of consensus in the framework of the DOC. In addition, China has taken an active part in consultations on setting rules in new areas such as cyberspace and outer space, so as to contribute to the formulation of widely accepted fair and equitable international rules.
 
Fifth, we should intensify military exchanges and cooperation to offer more guarantees for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. China faces diverse and complex security threats and challenges, as well as the arduous task of safeguarding national unity and territorial integrity. Building strong national defence and armed forces that are commensurate with China's international standing and its security and development interests is a strategic task in China's modernization drive, and provides a strong guarantee for its peaceful development. China's armed forces provide security and strategic support for the country's development and also make positive contributions to the maintenance of world peace and regional stability.
 
China's armed forces have called for, facilitated, and participated in international security cooperation. China has followed the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, conducted all-round military exchanges with other countries, and developed non-aligned and non-confrontational military cooperation not targetting any third party. It has worked to promote the establishment of just and effective collective security mechanisms and military confidence-building mechanisms. On the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, and mutually beneficial cooperation, China has increased interactions and cooperation with the armed forces of other countries, and intensified cooperation on confidence-building measures in border areas. China has promoted dialogue and cooperation on maritime security, participated in United Nations peacekeeping missions, international counter-terrorism cooperation, escort missions and disaster-relief operations, and conducted relevant joint exercises and training with other countries.
 
Sixth, we should properly resolve differences and disputes, and maintain a sound environment of peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. Most of the hotspot and sensitive issues in this region have been left over from history. To handle them, the countries in the region should follow the tradition of mutual respect, seeking common ground while reserving differences, and peaceful coexistence, and work to solve disputes properly and peacefully through direct negotiation and consultation. We should not allow old problems to hamper regional development and cooperation, and undermine mutual trust. For disputes over territories and maritime rights and interests, the sovereign states directly involved should respect historical facts and seek a peaceful solution through negotiation and consultation in accordance with the fundamental principles and legal procedures defined by universally recognized international law and modern maritime law, including the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Pending a satisfactory solution to disputes, the parties concerned should engage in dialogue to promote cooperation, manage each situation appropriately and prevent conflicts from escalating, so as to jointly safeguard peace and stability in the region.
 
China is committed to upholding peace and stability in the South China Sea, and working for peaceful solutions to the disputes over territories and maritime rights and interests with the countries directly involved through friendly negotiation and consultation. This commitment remains unchanged. China has actively pushed for peaceful solutions to hotspot issues such as the nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula and the Afghanistan issue, and played its due role as a responsible major country.
 
II. China's Security Vision for the Asia-Pacific Region
 
Visions guide actions, and to solve new problems new visions are required. Old security concepts based on the Cold War mentality, zero-sum game, and stress on force are outdated given the dynamic development of regional integration. In the new circumstances, all countries should keep up with the times, strengthen solidarity and cooperation with openness and inclusiveness, make security vision innovations, work to improve regional security systems and explore a new path for Asian security.
 
1. Concept of Common, Comprehensive, Cooperative and Sustainable Security
 
At the Fourth Summit of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) held in May 2014, Chinese President Xi Jinping called for a concept of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security, and a path of security featuring wide consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits in the Asia-Pacific region.
 
Common security means respecting and ensuring the security of each and every country involved. We cannot just have the security of one or some countries while leaving the rest insecure, still less should we seek "absolute security" of oneself at the expense of the security of others. We should respect and accommodate the legitimate security concerns of all parties. To beef up a military alliance targeted at a third party is not conducive to maintaining common security.
 
Comprehensive security means upholding security in both traditional and non-traditional fields. We should take into full account the historical background and reality concerning regional security, adopt a multi-pronged and holistic approach, and enhance regional security governance in a coordinated way. While tackling the immediate security challenges facing the region, we should also make plans for addressing potential security threats.
 
Cooperative security means promoting the security of both individual countries and the region as a whole through dialogue and cooperation. The countries involved should engage in sincere and in-depth dialogue and communication to increase strategic mutual trust, reduce mutual misgivings, seek common ground while resolving differences and live in harmony with one another. We should bear in mind the common challenges and actively foster the awareness of meeting security challenges through cooperation. And we should expand the scope of and explore new ways for cooperation, and promote peace and security through cooperation.
 
Sustainable security means that the countries involved need to focus on both development and security to realize durable security. All the parties should focus on development, actively improve people's lives and narrow the wealth gap so as to cement the foundation of security. We should advance common development and regional integration, and push for sound interactions and the synchronized progress of regional economic and security cooperation in order to promote sustainable security through sustainable development.
 
This security concept is in tune with globalization and the historical trend of the times featuring peace, development, and mutually beneficial cooperation. Rooted in regional integration, it has gathered the wisdom and consensus of the countries in the region, reflects the urgent need of all parties to cope with security challenges through cooperation, and opened broad prospects for regional security cooperation.
 
2. Improving the Regional Security Framework
 
The key to maintaining the long-term stability of the Asia-Pacific region is to build a security framework which is oriented to the future, accords with regional realities and meets all parties' needs.
 
First, the future regional security framework should be multi-layered, comprehensive and diversified. Countries in the Asia-Pacific region differ in their historical traditions, political systems, levels of development and security concerns. In this region there are ASEAN-led security cooperation mechanisms and platforms such as the SCO and CICA, as well as military alliances formed in history. Given such a diversity, a consistent security framework in this region is not foreseeable in the near future, and it will be normal to see multiple mechanisms advancing together in the evolution of a regional security framework. All the countries involved should play their respective roles in safeguarding regional peace and stability. China promotes the building of a security framework in the Asia-Pacific region, which does not mean starting all over again, but improving and upgrading the existing mechanisms.
 
Second, building the future security framework should be adopted as a common cause by all the countries in the region. As multi-polarity is becoming a global trend, regional security affairs should be decided by all the countries in the region through equal participation. The development of a regional security framework involves the common interests of all the countries in the region, and requires the active participation and contribution of all parties. The Asia-Pacific area is a region where major powers come into frequent contact and where their interests are concentrated. The major powers should jointly promote a regional security framework, so as to effectively deal with the increasingly complex security challenges in the region. Relevant bilateral military alliances should be made more transparent and avoid confrontation, so as to play a constructive role in the sphere of regional peace and stability.
 
Third, the future regional security framework should be based on consensus. It will be a long and gradual process to put in place such a framework, which cannot be completed overnight. All parties should continue to strengthen dialogue and cooperation, and steadily advance the development of a regional security framework on the basis of building consensus. At the current stage, the parties should continue to focus on non-traditional security cooperation, and start from the easier tasks before moving on to more difficult ones, so as to build trust and lay a solid foundation for the framework.
 
Fourth, the development of a regional security framework should be advanced in parallel with the development of a regional economic framework. Security and development are closely linked and mutually complementary. Equal consideration should be given to both a security framework and an economic framework - the main components of the entire regional structure - to ensure their parallel development. On the one hand, the improvement of the security framework will help ensure a peaceful and stable environment for economic development; on the other, faster regional economic integration will provide solid economic and social support for the development of the security framework.
 
III. China's Relations with Other Major Asia-Pacific Countries
 
1. China-US Relations
 
Since 2015 the overall relationship between China and the United States has remained stable and even made new progress. The two countries have maintained close contacts at the leadership and other levels. President Xi Jinping paid a state visit to the US at the invitation of President Barack Obama in September 2015, and met him again during the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris in November of the same year. In late March 2016 the two presidents had a successful meeting during the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington. In September they met again during the G20 Hangzhou Summit, and committed themselves to building a new model of a major-country relationship. Premier Li Keqiang met President Obama when attending high-level meetings of the 71st Session of the UN General Assembly. In June the same year the Eighth Round of the China-US Strategic and Economic Dialogue, the Seventh China-US High-Level Consultation on People-to-People Exchanges, and the Second China-US High-Level Joint Dialogue on Cybercrime and Related Issues were held in Beijing, and achieved fruitful results. In addition, the two countries have made steady progress in practical cooperation in various fields, and maintained close communication and coordination on major regional and global issues like climate change, the Korean and Iranian nuclear issues, Syria, and Afghanistan.
 
The two countries have maintained communication and coordination in the field of Asia-Pacific affairs through bilateral exchanges and relevant mechanisms at all levels, and agreed to build a bilateral relationship of positive interaction and inclusive cooperation in the region. The two countries have stayed in a state of communication and cooperation on regional and global affairs, including climate change, counter-terrorism, marine environmental protection, combating wild life smuggling, and disaster prevention and reduction within multilateral frameworks such as APEC, East Asia Summit (EAS), and ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). Moreover, the two sides have smoothly carried out trilateral personnel and agriculture training cooperation projects in Afghanistan and Timor-Leste.
 
China-US military relations have generally maintained a momentum of steady progress. Since 2015 the two militaries have continued to improve their two mutual-confidence-building mechanisms: the Mutual Notification of Major Military Activities and the Rules of Behavior for the Safety of Air and Maritime Encounters. In 2015 they held their Joint Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster-Relief Field Exercise and Disaster Management Exchanges in China and the US, respectively, and participated in Khaan Quest 2015 multinational peacekeeping military exercise and Exercise Kowari, a China-US-Australia trilateral military exercise. In January 2016 a working meeting of officials from the two ministries of defence was held in Beijing, and in May a video conference was held between the Chinese Chief of the Department of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Central Military Commission and the US Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. From late June to early August 2016, Chinese Navy Fleet 153 participated in RIMPAC 2016, a joint military exercise in Hawaii. In July and August the same year, the US Chief of Naval Operations and Chief of Staff of the Army each made a visit to China.
 
China is willing to promote the sustainable, sound and stable advance of bilateral relations, and work with the new US administration to follow the principles of no conflict, no confrontation, mutual respect and mutually beneficial cooperation, increase cooperation in bilateral, regional and global affairs, manage and control divergences in a constructive way, and further bilateral relations from a new starting point, so as to bring benefits to the two peoples and other peoples around the world.
 
2. China-Russia Relations
 
China and Russia are each other's biggest neighbor, and strategic partner of cooperation and priority in diplomacy. Over the years, China-Russia relations have gained healthy, stable and fast development, and made new achievements through joint efforts. In 2001 the two countries signed the Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, which established the idea of a lasting friendship in legal form. In 2011 the bilateral relationship was upgraded to a comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination based on equality, mutual trust, mutual support, common prosperity and lasting friendship. In 2014 the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination entered a new stage.
 
This partnership has presented a more positive momentum of development at a high level. President Xi Jinping and Russian President Vladimir Putin have met frequently. During the latter's visit to China in June 2016 the two sides signed three joint statements: the Joint Statement by the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation, Joint Statement by the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation on Strengthening Global Strategic Stability, and Joint Statement by the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation on Cooperation in Information Cyberspace Development. In September that year the two heads of state met for the third time, during the G20 Hangzhou Summit, and agreed to increase their firm mutual support on issues concerning each other's core interests, energetically promote the idea of a lasting friendship established in the Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, actively promote their development strategies and their efforts to promote the Belt and Road Initiative and Eurasian Economic Union, hold a Year of Media Exchange, and maintain close coordination and cooperation in international and regional affairs, so as to inject strong vigor into bilateral relations.
 
China and Russia have maintained good cooperation in Asia-Pacific affairs. The two sides continue to strengthen their cooperation within regional multilateral frameworks, safeguard the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and universally recognized norms governing international relations, uphold the achievements of World War II and international justice, advance the process of a political solution to regional hotspot issues, and contribute more positive energy to regional peace, stability, development and prosperity.
 
China-Russia military relations have made further progress. In 2015 the two militaries jointly commemorated the 70th anniversary of the victory of the World Anti-Fascist War, and sent high-ranking officers and teams to each other's commemoration activities and military parades. The two militaries successfully held joint maritime drills twice in a year for the first time. China participated in all events of the international military skill competition hosted by Russia, and the first Chinese Military Culture Week was held in Russia. In 2016 the two militaries maintained positive interaction. The First Joint Computer-Enabled Anti-Missile Defence Exercise was held. China participated in the international military games in Russia and Kazakhstan. In September China and Russia conducted the Maritime Joint Exercise 2016. The two militaries have also maintained close coordination within the defence and security cooperation framework of the SCO.
 
3. China-India Relations
 
Since 2015 the China-India strategic and cooperative partnership for peace and prosperity has been further deepened. The two countries have set the goal of forging a closer development partnership, made new progress in exchanges and cooperation in various areas and stayed in close communication and coordination on regional and international issues.
 
The two countries have held frequent exchanges of high-level visits, and enhanced political mutual trust. President Xi Jinping met Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on the sidelines of the Seventh BRICS Summit in Ufa in July 2015, the 16th SCO Summit in Tashkent in June 2016, the G20 Hangzhou Summit in September 2016, and the Eighth BRICS Summit in October 2016. In November 2015 Premier Li Keqiang met Indian Prime Minister Modi during the leaders' meetings for East Asia cooperation in Malaysia. Indian President Pranab Mukherjee visited China in May 2016, and Prime Minister Narendra Modi visited China in May 2015. Practical cooperation between the two countries has made solid progress in various areas. The two countries have maintained communication and coordination on international affairs and enhanced collaboration in the UN, BRICS, G20, China-India-Russia and other mechanisms. They have cooperated on climate change, the WTO Doha Round of negotiations, energy and food security, reform of international financial and monetary institutions, and global governance. Such cooperation has helped safeguard the common interests of China, India and other developing countries.
 
The relations between the Chinese and Indian militaries remain healthy and stable in general, with increasingly close communication and exchanges, and pragmatic cooperation in greater breadth and depth. Eight rounds of defence and security consultation and six joint military anti-terrorism training exercises have been held so far. Sound cooperation in personnel training, professional exchanges and other fields is being carried out. The two sides have also conducted border defence cooperation, which plays a positive role in maintaining peace and tranquillity in the border areas between China and India. Military leaders of the two sides visited each other in 2015 and 2016, and reached an important consensus on strengthening pragmatic cooperation between the two militaries and working together to maintain peace and stability in the border areas.
 
4. China-Japan Relations
 
Since 2015 China-Japan relations have maintained the momentum of improvement which started at the end of 2014. Upon invitation, President Xi Jinping met Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe on the margins of the APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting and the Asian-African Summit. He attended and gave an important speech at the China-Japan Friendship Exchange Meeting. Premier Li Keqiang met Prime Minister Abe during the China-Japan-ROK Trilateral Summit Meeting in 2015 and during the Asia-Europe Meeting in 2016. During the G20 Hangzhou Summit in September 2016 President Xi Jinping had another meeting with Prime Minister Abe. The two sides resumed contacts at government, parliament and party levels in an orderly way. Three rounds of high-level political dialogue were held and exchanges and cooperation in various areas were steadily pushed forward. However, complex and sensitive factors still remain in bilateral relations. In response to Japan's negative moves concerning historical and maritime territory issues, China urges Japan to abide by the four political documents and the four-point principled agreement on bilateral relations, properly manage and control disputes and conflicts, and avoid creating obstacles to the improvement of bilateral relations.
 
Since the end of 2014 defence exchanges between the two countries have gradually resumed and developed. In November 2015 the Chinese and Japanese defence ministers met during the ASEAN Defence Ministers' Meeting. The defence chiefs of the two countries have met several times on other multilateral occasions. In 2016 the defence ministries of the two countries conducted working-level exchanges. Since 2015, defence ministries of the two countries have held two expert panel consultations on the establishment of air and maritime contact mechanisms, with consensus reached on most matters.
 
5. China has continued developing friendly and cooperative relations with other countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with enhanced political mutual trust, strengthened economic and trade relations, closer people-to-people and cultural exchanges, and enlarged defence cooperation, so as to jointly promote peace, stability, development and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region.
 
IV. China's Positions and Views on Regional Hotspot Issues
 
1. Nuclear Issue on the Korean Peninsula
 
China's position on the Korean Peninsula nuclear issue is consistent and clear-cut. China is committed to the denuclearization of the peninsula, its peace and stability, and settlement of the issue through dialogue and consultation. Over the years, China has made tremendous efforts to facilitate the process of denuclearization of the peninsula, safeguard the overall peace and stability there, and realize an early resumption of the Six-Party Talks. In January and September this year the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) conducted two nuclear tests and launched missiles of various types, violating UN Security Council resolutions and running counter to the wishes of the international community. China has made clear its opposition to such actions and supported the relevant Security Council resolutions to prevent the DPRK's further pursuit of nuclear weapons. China will continue to work with the international community and strive for denuclearization and long-term peace and stability of the peninsula and of Northeast Asia as a whole. At the same time, other parties concerned should not give up the efforts to resume talks or their responsibilities to safeguard peace and stability on the peninsula.
 
2. Anti-Ballistic Missile Issue
 
The anti-ballistic missile issue concerns global strategic stability and mutual trust among major countries. China always holds the view that the anti-ballistic missile issue should be treated with discretion. Forming Cold War style military alliances and building global and regional anti-ballistic missile systems will be detrimental to strategic stability and mutual trust, as well as to the development of an inclusive global and regional security framework. Countries should respect other countries' security concerns while pursuing their own security interests, and follow the principle of maintaining global strategic stability without compromising the security of any country so as to jointly create a peaceful and stable international security environment featuring equality, mutual trust and mutually beneficial cooperation.
 
Despite clear opposition from relevant countries including China, the US and the Republic of Korea (ROK) announced the decision to start and accelerate the deployment of the THAAD anti-ballistic missile system in the ROK. Such an act would seriously damage the regional strategic balance and the strategic security interests of China and other countries in the region, and run counter to the efforts for maintaining peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula. China firmly opposes the US and ROK deployment of the THAAD anti-ballistic missile system in the ROK, and strongly urges the US and the ROK to stop this process.
 
3. Afghanistan Issue
 
China supports peace and reconstruction in Afghanistan, and hopes to see an Afghanistan that is united, stable, prosperous and at peace with its neighboring countries. Since 2015 China has increased assistance to Afghanistan in support of that government's capacity building. In the wake of a 7.8-magnitude earthquake in northern Afghanistan in October 2015 China provided assistance for disaster-relief efforts. China believes that only an inclusive reconciliation process that is "Afghan-led and Afghan-owned" can provide the ultimate solution to the Afghanistan issue. China will continue to play a constructive role in advancing the reconciliation process in Afghanistan.
 
4. Counter-Terrorism Cooperation
 
At present, the counter-terrorism situation in the Asia-Pacific region is undergoing complex and profound changes. The region faces severe security and stability challenges posed by violent and extremist ideologies spreading at an ever-faster pace, more active terrorist and extremist forces, rising threats from cyber terrorism, and frequent violent terrorist activities, in particular the infiltration of international terrorist organizations and the inflow of foreign terrorist fighters.
 
Terrorism is a common scourge of the international community and humanity as a whole. The Chinese government opposes terrorism in all forms and calls on the international community to cooperate in fighting terrorism on the basis of the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and other universally recognized norms governing international relations. China believes that dialogue among different civilizations should be enhanced and a holistic approach taken to eliminate the breeding grounds of terrorism by addressing both its symptoms and root causes by political, economic and diplomatic means. At the same time, there should be no double standard in fighting terrorism, which should not be associated with any particular country, ethnicity or religion.
 
5. Maritime Cooperation
 
The overall maritime situation remains stable in the region. It is all parties' common interest and consensus to maintain maritime peace, security and freedom of navigation and overflight. However, non-traditional maritime security threats are on the rise. The ecological environment in many marine areas has been damaged. Marine natural disasters occur frequently, and leaks of oil or hazardous chemicals happen from time to time. In addition, there are often cases of piracy, smuggling and drug trafficking. Misunderstandings and lack of mutual trust among some countries about traditional security issues also pose risks to maritime security.
 
China has called for even-handed, practical and mutually beneficial maritime security cooperation. It adheres to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the fundamental principles and legal system defined by universally recognized international laws and modern maritime laws, including the UNCLOS and the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, in dealing with regional maritime issues, and is committed to coping with traditional and non-traditional maritime security threats through cooperation. Maintaining maritime peace and security is the shared responsibility of all countries in the region, and serves the common interests of all parties. China is dedicated to strengthening cooperation and jointly tackling challenges with all relevant parties so as to maintain maritime peace and stability.
 
China has indisputable sovereignty over the Nansha Islands and their adjacent waters. China has always been committed to resolving disputes peacefully through negotiation and consultation, managing disputes by setting rules and establishing mechanisms, realizing mutually beneficial outcomes through cooperation for mutual benefit, and upholding peace and stability as well as freedom of navigation and overflight in the South China Sea. China and the ASEAN countries stay in close communication and dialogue on the South China Sea issue. When fully and effectively implementing the DOC, the two sides have strengthened pragmatic maritime cooperation, steadily advanced the consultations on COC and made positive progress. China resolutely opposes certain countries' provocations of regional disputes for their selfish interests. China is forced to make necessary responses to the provocative actions which infringe on China's territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, and undermine peace and stability in the South China Sea. No effort to internationalize and judicialize the South China Sea issue will be of any avail for its resolution; it will only make it harder to resolve the issue, and endanger regional peace and stability.
 
Issues concerning the Diaoyu Islands and maritime demarcation in the East China Sea exist between China and Japan. The Diaoyu Islands are an integral part of China's territory. China's sovereignty over the Diaoyu Islands has a sufficient historical and legal basis. China and Japan have maintained dialogues on issues related to the East China Sea and held several rounds of high-level consultations. They have had communication and reached consensus on crisis management and control in the air and waters of the East China Sea, maritime law enforcement, oil and gas exploration, scientific research, fisheries and other issues. China is willing to properly manage the situation and resolve related issues through continued dialogue and consultation.
 
China and the ROK have extensive and in-depth exchanges of views on maritime demarcation, and launched relevant negotiations in December 2015.
 
V. China's Participation in Major Multilateral Mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific Region
 
1. China-ASEAN Cooperation
 
China regards ASEAN as a priority in its neighborhood diplomacy, and firmly supports ASEAN's integration and community building as well as its centrality in regional cooperation. Following the principles of mutual respect,equality,good-neighborliness and mutually beneficial cooperation, China and ASEAN have further strengthened strategic dialogue, enhanced political mutual trust, and deepened practical cooperation in economy and trade, connectivity, finance, security, maritime affairs, and cultural and people-to-people exchanges, making continuous progress in their relations. During his visit to Southeast Asia in 2013 President Xi Jinping announced that China wants to build a closer China-ASEAN community of shared future.
 
In 2015 the China-ASEAN Defence Ministers' Informal Meeting was held in China for the first time. The two sides also held the Telecommunication Ministers' Meeting, AEM-MOFCOM Consultations, Transport Ministers' Meeting, and Prosecutors-Generals' Conference. In November of the same year, the two sides signed the Protocol to Amend the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation and Certain Agreements Thereunder Between China and ASEAN, which marked the conclusion of the negotiations on an upgraded China-ASEAN Free Trade Area.
 
The year 2016 sees the 25th anniversary of the China-ASEAN Dialogue and the Year of China-ASEAN Educational Exchanges. On September 7 the 19th China-ASEAN Summit to Commemorate the 25th Anniversary of China-ASEAN Dialogue was held in Vientiane, Laos. Premier Li Keqiang attended and reviewed with ASEAN leaders the progress in bilateral relations, summarized experiences, and outlined the direction for future development. The two sides have also held meetings of their ministers of foreign affairs, economy and trade, quality management and inspection. A series of commemoration events have been hosted, including the Reception in Commemoration of the 25th Anniversary of China-ASEAN Dialogue Relations, Ninth China-ASEAN Education Cooperation Week, Second China-ASEAN Governors/Mayors Dialogue, International Conference to Celebrate the 25th Anniversary of China-ASEAN Dialogue Relations and China-ASEAN Week.
 
2. ASEAN Plus Three (APT) Cooperation
 
ASEAN Plus Three (APT) cooperation is the main vehicle for East Asia cooperation. China has called upon all parties to increase their input in implementing the Report of the East Asia Vision Group II and ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation Work Plan 2013-2017, actively advanced the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralization (CMIM) process, and supported the greater readiness and effectiveness of the CMIM and the capacity building of the ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic Research Office after its upgrading to an international organization, so as to contribute to East Asia's economic and financial stability. China has also pushed forward the negotiations on trade in goods and services, and the model of access to investment markets under the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and encouraged other parties to issue the Joint Statement on RCEP Negotiations.
 
On September 7, 2016 the 19th ASEAN Plus Three Summit was held in Vientiane, Laos, during which Premier Li Keqiang made six proposals on enhancing APT cooperation: to reinforce financial security cooperation, to expand trade and investment cooperation, to promote agricultural and poverty reduction cooperation, to increase the level of connectivity, to create new models for industrial cooperation, and to expand cultural and people-to-people exchanges.
 
Since 2015 China has vigorously promoted practical cooperation within the APT framework, and held a series of events, including the Seventh East Asia Business Forum, Training Program on Understanding China, Ninth and Tenth Workshops on Cooperation for Cultural Human Resource Development, East Asia High-Level Investment Forum, Sixth Roundtable Meeting on Food Security, Second East Asia Modern Agricultural Workshop, exchange activities for young scientists, "Return to China" Project Cultural Event Series, Fourth International Workshop on ASEAN Plus Three Connectivity Partnership, Third and Fourth ASEAN Plus Three Village Leaders Exchange Programs, and 14th Asian Arts Festival.
 
3. China-Japan-ROK Cooperation
 
As major countries in East Asia, China, Japan and the ROK are the main drivers of East Asia economic integration. Stronger trilateral cooperation will be conducive not only to the development of the three countries, but also to regional stability and prosperity.
 
In 2015 China-Japan and ROK-Japan relations improved to some extent, ushering in a new phase of greater practical cooperation among the three countries in various fields. The Sixth China-Japan-ROK Summit was held on November 1 in Seoul, the Republic of Korea, where leaders of the three countries had an in-depth exchange of views on trilateral cooperation and international and regional issues of common interest, reiterated the importance they placed on trilateral cooperation, and agreed to properly handle relevant issues in the spirit of "facing history squarely and working together for the future," enhancing cooperation in political, economic, trade, fiscal, financial and cultural fields as well as on sustainable development. The meeting issued the Joint Declaration for Peace and Cooperation in Northeast Asia and other joint statements in agricultural, educational, and economic and trade sectors, which further enriched the trilateral cooperation and charted a course for future cooperation.
 
Since 2015 a number of meetings, forums and events among China, Japan and the ROK have been held, including the Ministerial Meetings on Foreign Affairs, Tourism, Water Resource, Environment, Finance, Economic and Trade, Agriculture, Culture, Health and Disaster Management, Central Bank Governors' Meeting, Meeting of Heads of Personnel Authorities, Trilateral Police Affairs Consultation and Counter-Terrorism Consultation, Director Generals' Meeting on Forestry Cooperation, Meeting of the Committee for Promoting Exchanges and Cooperation Among Universities, Northeast Asia Trilateral Forum, Tabletop Exercise on Disaster Management, Workshop on Marine Sciences and International Forum for Trilateral Cooperation, and several rounds of negotiations for a Free Trade Area.
 
4. East Asia Summit (EAS)
 
The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a leaders-led strategic forum. Remarkable progress has been made in EAS cooperation since 2015. Called for by China, the Fifth EAS Foreign Ministers' Meeting decided to extend the deadline of implementing the Plan of Action to Implement the Phnom Penh Declaration on the EAS Development Initiative to 2017.
 
At the 11th EAS held in Vientiane, Laos, on September 8, 2016, Premier Li Keqiang pointed out that cooperation in economic development and cooperation in political security were the two engines propelling the EAS, which should coordinate and synchronize with each other. On economic development, all parties should render strong support to regional connectivity, step up construction of free trade areas, and strengthen cooperation in social undertakings and people's livelihood. On political security, China advocates the new security concept featuring common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security, and supports all parties to strengthen cooperation on non-traditional security, discuss the building of a regional security framework, and properly settle hotspot and sensitive issues.
 
China actively promotes cooperation in various areas of the EAS. Since 2015 China has hosted the Second EAS New Energy Forum, Second EAS Clean Energy Forum, EAS Wildlife Protection Symposium, EAS Track II Seminar on Maritime Cooperation for Security in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, Fifth EAS Workshop on Regional Security Framework, and the Fourth and Fifth EAS Earthquake Search and Rescue Exercises.
 
5. ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)
 
The ARF has become an influential and inclusive platform for official multilateral security dialogue and cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. All parties have been making confidence-building measures as their core mission, promoting preventive diplomacy based on consensus, and steadily enhancing cooperation in non-traditional security fields.
 
On July 26, 2016 the 23rd ARF Ministerial Meeting was held in Vientiane, Laos. The Chinese side pointed out that the forum should focus on confidence-building measures throughout the whole process, and explore a preventive diplomacy mode compatible with the regional situation step by step on the basis of consensus. All sides should further strengthen dialogue and cooperation, enhance understanding and mutual trust among regional countries, work together to cope with non-traditional security threats and other challenges, and enable the forum to make greater contributions to regional peace and security.
 
China has actively led practical cooperation within the framework of the ARF. Since 2015 it has hosted the Workshop on Cyber Security Capacity Building, Third ARF Workshop on Space Security, ARF Seminar on Maritime Risk Management and Cooperation, ARF Workshop on Marine Oil Spill Emergency Response and Management and Disposal Cooperation, ARF Workshop on Strengthening Management of Cross-Border Movement of Criminals, ARF Workshop on Green Shipping, and ARF Workshop on Urban Emergency Rescue.
 
6. ASEAN Defence Ministers' Meeting Plus (ADMM-Plus)
 
The ADMM-Plus is the highest-level and largest defence and security dialogue and cooperation mechanism in the Asia-Pacific region. It has played a vital role in enhancing mutual trust and promoting pragmatic cooperation among the defence ministries and armed forces of all parties.
 
On November 4, 2015, at the Third ADMM-Plus held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, the Chinese side pointed out that all parties should push for the building of an open, inclusive, transparent and even-handed regional security cooperation framework, keep deepening pragmatic defence cooperation, properly handle disputes, manage and control risks, and jointly safeguard regional peace and stability.
 
In 2016 the Chinese military has participated in the ADMM-Plus peacekeeping and demining joint exercise in India and the maritime security and counter-terrorism exercises in Brunei and Singapore. From 2017 to 2020 China and Thailand will co-chair the ADMM-Plus Experts' Working Group on Counter-terrorism.
 
7. Lancang-Mekong Cooperation (LMC)
 
The establishment of the Lancang-Mekong Cooperation (LMC) framework was an important initiative put forward by Premier Li Keqiang at the 17th China-ASEAN Summit in November 2014. This initiative aims to enhance good-neighborliness and friendship among the six countries along the Lancang-Mekong River through pragmatic cooperation, promote sub-regional economic and social development, and forge a community of shared future for solidarity, mutual assistance, even-handed consultation, shared benefits and mutually beneficial cooperation in the sub-region. The LMC framework has China, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam as its members.
 
The LMC has registered encouraging progress. One leaders' meeting, one foreign ministers' meeting and three senior officials' meetings have been held by November 2016. In November 2015 the First LMC Foreign Ministers' Meeting was held in Jinghong, in China's Yunnan Province, at which the foreign ministers of the six countries announced the start of the LMC process, reached broad consensus on the direction of future cooperation and the structure of the LMC, and put forward proposals for a number of cooperation projects.
 
On March 23, 2016 the First LMC Leaders' Meeting was held in Sanya, in China's Hainan Province, officially launching the LMC framework. Leaders of the six countries reviewed past progress, shared their vision for the future of the LMC, and agreed to coordinate their strategies for development, make overall planning of their cooperation resources, share the benefits of development, and build a community of shared future among the Lancang-Mekong countries. The meeting confirmed the "3+5" mechanism of cooperation: the three cooperation pillars of political and security issues, economic and sustainable development, and cultural and people-to-people exchanges; and the five key priority areas of connectivity, production capacity, cross-border economic cooperation, water resources, and agriculture and poverty reduction. The meeting issued the Sanya Declaration of the First Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Leaders' Meeting and the Joint Statement on Production Capacity Cooperation Among the Lancang-Mekong Countries, and adopted a joint list of early-harvest programs in areas such as connectivity, water resources, public health and poverty reduction.
 
8. Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)
 
Since 2015 the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) has maintained sound and steady development. Progress has been made in political, security, economic and cultural cooperation, leading to the firmer international standing and greater influence of the SCO.
 
President Xi Jinping attended the 15th Meeting of the Council of the Heads of State of the SCO member states on July 9-10, 2015 in Ufa, Russia, where they signed the Ufa Declaration of the Heads of State of SCO Member States and the SCO Member States Agreement on Border Defence Cooperation, and approved important documents including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization's Development Strategy until 2025 and the SCO Member States 2016-2018 Cooperation Program on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism.
 
Premier Li Keqiang chaired the 14th Meeting of the Council of the Heads of Government (Prime Ministers) of the SCO member states held in China on December 14-15, 2015. The leaders at the meeting laid out plans for cooperation in various fields for the next stage, issued the Statement of the Heads of Govemment (Prime Ministers) of SCO Member States on Regional Economic Cooperation, adopted the resolution on Preparation for Creating the SCO Development Bank and the SCO Development Foundation (Specialized Account), and witnessed the signing of the Program of Interaction Between the Customs Agencies of the SCO member states for 2016-2021 and the Memorandum of Understanding between the Secretariat of the SCO and the Secretariat of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.
 
On June 23-24, 2016 the 16th Meeting of the Council of the Heads of State of the SCO member states was held in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. President Xi Jinping attended the meeting. The heads of the member states signed the Tashkent Declaration on the 15th Anniversary of the SCO, approved the Action Plan for 2016-2020 on Implementation of the SCO Development Strategy Towards 2025, and adopted the Memorandums of the Obligations on the Entry of the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan to the SCO.
 
Since 2015 meetings of heads of various departments including security council secretaries, foreign ministers, defence ministers, economic and trade ministers, culture ministers and heads of emergency response agencies have been held. These meetings deepened and expanded cooperation in various fields, and increased the SCO's international influence. China has promoted and participated in SCO cooperation across the board. China's bilateral relations with other SCO member states, observer states and dialogue partners have continued to grow.
 
9. Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA)
 
On April 27-28, 2016 the Fifth Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the CICA member states was held in Beijing. President Xi Jinping attended the opening ceremony and delivered an important speech. The meeting issued the Declaration on Promoting Peace, Security, Stability and Sustainable Development in Asia Through Dialogue and adopted the 2016-2018 Cooperation Initiative of the CICA Member States for Drug Control and the 2016-2018 CICA Initiative for the Implementation of Confidence-Building Measures for the Development of Small and Medium Enterprises.
 
China has actively implemented the confidence-building measures of CICA in all fields and made innovative efforts in the cooperation platform of CICA. Since 2015 China has hosted the founding conference of the CICA Youth Council, founding assembly of CICA Business Council, First CICA Non-Governmental Forum and Third Think Tank Roundtable, which have helped to implement the confidence-building measures in cultural and economic fields, and promoted dialogue and exchange among young people, NGOs and think tanks.
 
VI. China's Participation in Regional Non-Traditional Security Cooperation
 
1. Disaster Relief
 
Since 2015 the Chinese government has been actively involved in and promoted exchanges and cooperation on disaster relief in the Asia-Pacific region. China hosted the Eighth SCO Meeting of Heads of Emergency Prevention and Relief Agencies and the Third China-Japan-ROK Tabletop Exercise on Disaster Management, co-hosted with Malaysia the Fourth ARF Disaster Relief Exercise, and participated in the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, International Drill of the Emergency Prevention and Relief Agencies of the SCO Member States, the Ninth APEC Senior Disaster Management Officials' Forum and International Search and Rescue Advisory Group Asia-Pacific Regional Earthquake Response Exercise.
 
In January and July 2015 and in May 2016, when Malaysia, Myanmar and Sri Lanka were hit by devastating floods, China immediately provided relief supplies to the three countries. In the wake of severe earthquakes in Nepal in April 2015 China sent rescue and medical teams and transportation detachments to the country and provided mobile field hospitals in support of disaster-relief efforts.
 
The Chinese government will continue to work with relevant parties to improve mutual visits of officials, information sharing, personnel training, technological exchanges, simulation exercises, scientific research cooperation, material reserves and emergency aid, to enhance practical bilateral and multilateral cooperation in disaster relief, and improve disaster mitigation and relief capacity in the Asia-Pacific area.
 
2. Counter-Terrorism Cooperation
 
Since 2015 China has cooperated with a number of neighboring countries in combating terrorism-related human smuggling, and arrested a number of terrorist suspects and human smugglers active in the region. These efforts dealt a heavy blow to the illegal human smuggling networks of the "Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement" (ETIM) and other terrorist organizations, and effectively countered and prevented the infiltration efforts of the ETIM and other terrorist organizations.
 
China has held bilateral anti-terrorism consultations with the US, Russia, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, Pakistan, the ROK and Indonesia, hosted the 13th ARF Inter-Sessional Meeting on Counter-terrorism and Transnational Crimes, and promoted cooperation on combating Internet-spread violent and terrorist audios/videos and cross-border terrorist activities. In addition, by taking an active part in the APEC Counter-terrorism Working Group, the Global Counter-terrorism Forum and the ASEAN plus China Meeting on Transnational Crime at ministerial level, China has strengthened exchanges in anti-terrorism cooperation.
 
China, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Tajikistan have established a coordination mechanism on counter-terrorism cooperation among the military forces of the four countries, aimed at conducting coordination on situation analysis, verification of clues, sharing of intelligence, capacity building, joint training and personnel training, and providing mutual assistance.
 
3. Cooperation in Combating Transnational Crimes
 
The Chinese government places high importance on combating trans-national crimes, and is committed to fully and earnestly implementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC). China has concluded 123 judicial assistance and extradition treaties with 70 countries, and actively promoted the establishment of bilateral judicial and law-enforcement cooperation mechanisms with the US and Canada. These efforts have provided a solid legal basis and effective platform for China's cooperation with relevant countries in combating transnational crime in all forms.
 
China is actively involved in international cooperation in combating transnational organized crimes and maintains sound cooperation with the UN and other international and regional organizations. It has facilitated law-enforcement and security cooperation along the Mekong River and conducted multiple joint actions with Southeast Asian countries in combating transnational crimes, and effectively fought against human trafficking, telecom fraud, economic crimes and drug-related crimes that are prevalent in the region. In October 2015 China hosted the China-ASEAN Ministerial Dialogue on Law Enforcement and Security Cooperation with the theme "Security for Prosperity" and the Ministerial Meeting on Law Enforcement and Security Cooperation along the Mekong River. In the Second Safe Mekong Joint Operation by China, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand, over 10,000 suspects were arrested, more than 9,000 drug-related cases were solved, and a large quantity of narcotics was seized.
 
China stands ready to enhance judicial and law-enforcement cooperation with relevant countries in a joint effort to fight transnational crimes, and calls on all countries to enhance their political will for international cooperation, overcome differences in legal systems, promote cooperation within the framework of the UNTOC, including cooperation on extradition, provide wide judicial assistance, and cooperate in the recovery and disposal of criminal proceeds. China also encourages countries concerned to negotiate and conclude bilateral extradition and judicial assistance treaties for more concrete outcomes in cooperation to combat trans-national crimes.
 
4. Cyber Security
 
Currently, cyber security is acquiring greater importance. Asia-Pacific countries are placing high importance on cyber security, increasing input and actively conducting dialogue and regional cooperation on this issue. China is a staunch supporter of and an active participant in international efforts to ensure cyber security. It believes that cyberspace should be used to promote economic and social development, maintain international peace and stability, and improve the well-being of mankind. Countries should strengthen dialogue and cooperation on the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, and build a peaceful, secure, open and cooperative cyberspace and a multilateral, democratic and transparent international Internet regime. It is imperative that a universally accepted international code of conduct is formulated within the UN framework.
 
Since 2015 China has continued to promote cyber security within the UN framework, and been deeply involved in the process. China and other SCO member states have jointly submitted an updated version of the International Code of Conduct for Information Security to the UN General Assembly. China has contributed to the endeavors to formulate international rules governing cyberspace by taking an active part in and facilitating the efforts of the UN's Group of Governmental Experts on Cyber Security to produce its final report, which affirms that the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, including sovereign equality, non-interference in others' internal affairs, and non-use of force, also apply to cyberspace. China has also played a constructive role in the UN Internet Governance Forum and the High-Level Meeting on the Overall Review of the Implementation of the Outcomes of the World Summit on the Information Society.
 
China has continuously strengthened bilateral dialogues and practical cooperation on cyber security with countries in the region. China and Russia have signed the Information Security Cooperation Agreement and held a new round of consultation on cyber security. China-Japan-ROK, China-ROK and China-EU dialogues on cyber security have been held. China and the US held the High-Level Joint Dialogue on Cybercrime and Related Issues.
 
China attaches great importance to and takes an active part in regional mechanisms under the ARF, BRICS and SCO in order to promote balanced and inclusive development of network security cooperation in the region. China is actively involved in the BRICS Expert Working Group on Cyber-Security and the SCO Expert Group on International Information Security, and has worked on the Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization to establish a Working Group on International Legal Issues Concerning Cyber Space. China also hosted the Second World Internet Conference.
 
5. Cooperation on Maritime Security
 
The year 2015 was the year of China-ASEAN maritime cooperation. Maritime cooperation is a key part of building the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. China and the ASEAN countries conducted a series of exchanges and cooperative events on maritime security, scientific research and environmental protection. China and Thailand conducted a scientific expedition in the Andaman Sea, and held the Fourth Joint Committee Meeting on Marine Cooperation. China and Malaysia signed the Memorandum of Understanding on the Establishment of the China-Malaysia Joint Oceanographic Research Center. The construction of the China-Indonesia Center for the Oceans and Climate, and the Joint Oceanic Observation Station proceeded in an orderly way. The Third China-Southeast Asian Countries Marine Research and Environmental Protection Cooperation Forum was also held.
 
China has actively participated in and advanced dialogues and cooperation on maritime security. Since 2015 China has hosted the Asia-Pacific Heads of Maritime Administrations Conference, the multi-task exercise "Cooperation for Law Enforcement 2015" of the North Pacific Coast Guard Agencies Forum, International Training Course for Lighthouse Management Personnel in the Asia-Pacific Area and the Asia-Pacific Mass Rescue Operation Training Course and Tabletop Exercise. China has continued its cooperation with Australia and Malaysia in the search for Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370, and provided 20 million Australian dollars for follow-up search-and-rescue efforts in this regard.
 
China has vigorously supported the capacity building and development of the Information Sharing Center (ISC) under the Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery, and accredited maritime police officers to the ISC. In June 2016, as requested by Vietnam, China dispatched vessels and airplanes to assist in searching for and rescuing Vietnamese airplanes which had crashed, along with their crew members. From December 2008 to January 2016 Chinese fleets sent to the Gulf of Aden and Somali waters as escorts conducted 909 missions, escorting 6,112 Chinese and foreign civilian vessels.
 
6. Cooperation in Non-Proliferation and Disarmament
 
China supports and takes an active part in international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation efforts, and stands for the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China has earnestly implemented the outcomes of all the review conferences of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and played a constructive role in the Ninth NPT review conference and the P5 Conference on Implementing the NPT. China stands ready to work with all parties through unremitting efforts to achieve the three NPT goals of "nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear power."
 
China holds that establishing a Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone is of great significance for promoting regional and global peace and stability. China supports the efforts of ASEAN countries to establish a Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone, and stands for the early signing and going into effect of the protocol to the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone. China has solved all the remaining issues concerning the protocol with ASEAN, and looks forward to the signing of the protocol at an early date. China will continue to participate constructively in consultation between ASEAN and the five nuclear countries, and facilitate consultation between ASEAN and the other four nuclear countries to resolve their differences so that the protocol can be signed and come into effect at an early date.
 
China stands for the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of all weapons of mass destruction, including chemical weapons, opposes the development, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons by any one, and supports the purposes and goals of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, and the work of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). China is earnest in fulfilling its obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention in its entirety, and attaches great importance to and supports international exchanges and cooperation under the convention.
 
In 2015 China held the 13th Regional Meeting of National Authorities of Asian State Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, hosted the Advanced Protection and Assistance Course with the OPCW, and held the Training Course on National Points of Contacts of States in the Asia-Pacific Region together with the UN Security Council 1540 Committee. China also participated in the Asian Senior-Level Talks on Non-Proliferation, ARF Inter-Sessional Workshop on Non-Proliferation, and other related events.
 
Conclusion
 
The Chinese people are working hard to realize the Chinese Dream of the great renewal of the Chinese nation. In this process, China will bring greater opportunities and benefits for development and cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. China's development adds to the momentum for world peace. China will firmly follow the path of peaceful development and the policy of "building friendship and partnership with neighboring countries" to create an amicable, secure and prosperous neighborhood. China remains committed to the principles of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness in conducting neighborhood diplomacy and the goal of maintaining and promoting stability and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region. China stands ready to work with all countries in the region to pursue mutually beneficial cooperation and steadily advance security dialogues and cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, and the building of a new model of international relations so as to create a brighter future for this region.
 

新华社北京1月11日电 国务院新闻办公室11日发表《中国的亚太安全合作政策》白皮书。全文如下:

 

中国的亚太安全合作政策

(2017年1月)

中华人民共和国

国务院新闻办公室

 

目录

前言

一、中国对亚太安全合作的政策主张

二、中国的亚太安全理念

三、中国与地区其他主要国家的关系

四、中国在地区热点问题上的立场和主张

五、中国参与亚太地区主要多边机制

六、中国参与地区非传统安全合作

结束语

 

前言

亚洲和太平洋地区地域广阔,国家众多,拥有全世界60%的人口,经济和贸易总量分别占全球总额的近六成和一半,在世界格局中具有重要战略地位。近年来,亚太地区的发展日益引人注目,成为全球最具发展活力和潜力的地区,地区国家进一步加大对亚太地区的重视和投入。随着国际关系格局的深刻调整,亚太地区格局也在发生重要深刻变化。

中国一直致力于维护亚太地区的和平与稳定,坚持走和平发展道路,坚持互利共赢的开放战略,坚持在和平共处五项原则基础上同所有国家发展友好合作,全面参与区域合作,积极应对传统安全和非传统安全挑战,为推动建设持久和平、共同繁荣的亚太不懈努力。

一、中国对亚太安全合作的政策主张

当前,亚太地区形势总体稳定向好,和平与发展的势头依然强劲,是当前全球格局中的稳定板块。促和平、求稳定、谋发展是多数国家的战略取向和共同诉求。亚太国家间政治互信不断增强,大国互动频繁并总体保持合作态势。通过对话协商处理分歧和争端是各国主要政策取向,地区热点和争议问题基本可控。亚太经济保持平稳较快增长,处于世界经济增长“高地”。区域一体化加速推进,次区域合作蓬勃发展。各类自贸安排稳步推进,互联互通建设进入新一轮活跃期。同时,亚太地区仍面临诸多不稳定、不确定因素。朝鲜半岛问题复杂敏感,阿富汗和解进程进展缓慢,领土主权和海洋权益争端继续发酵。一些国家加大在亚太军事部署,个别国家推动军事松绑,部分国家经历复杂政治社会转型,恐怖主义、自然灾害、跨国犯罪等非传统安全威胁日益突出。受自身结构性问题和外部经济金融风险等影响,亚洲经济仍面临较大下行压力。作为亚太大家庭中的重要一员,中国深知自身和平发展与亚太未来息息相关,一直以来以促进亚太繁荣稳定为己任。中国愿同地区国家秉持合作共赢理念,扎实推进安全对话合作,共同维护亚太和平与稳定的良好局面。

第一,促进共同发展,夯实亚太和平稳定的经济基础。扩大经济利益融合是国家间关系的重要基础,实现共同发展是维护和平稳定的根本保障,是解决各类安全问题的“总钥匙”。亚太地区在经济合作方面已取得不少成果,应在此基础上加快经济一体化进程,继续推进自贸区建设和互联互通,促进经济社会全面发展。落实联合国2030年可持续发展议程,缩小区内发展差距,让各国和各阶层民众共享发展红利,拉紧各国利益纽带。

着眼于共同发展,中国提出并积极推动“一带一路”建设,倡议成立了亚洲基础设施投资银行和丝路基金。中国欢迎各国继续积极参与,实现互利共赢。

第二,推进伙伴关系建设,筑牢亚太和平稳定的政治根基。亚太地区国家具有独特的多样性。志同道合是伙伴,求同存异同样可以成为伙伴,关键在于平等相待、合作共赢。亚太大国对维护地区和平与发展至关重要,应客观理性看待他方战略意图,抛弃冷战思维,相互尊重正当合理的利益关切,加强良性互动,合作应对地区挑战。中小国家没有必要也不应在大国之间选边站队。地区国家应共同努力,走“对话而不对抗,结伴而不结盟”的新路,共建互信、包容、合作、共赢的亚太伙伴关系。

中国提出构建以合作共赢为核心的新型国际关系,致力于同各国、各地区组织建立不同形式的伙伴关系。中国致力于与美国构建不冲突不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢的新型大国关系,与俄罗斯不断深化全面战略协作伙伴关系,与印度积极构建更加紧密的发展伙伴关系,推动中日关系持续改善。中国领导人多次在不同场合阐述命运共同体理念,积极推动构建澜沧江-湄公河国家命运共同体和中国-东盟命运共同体,推动亚洲命运共同体和亚太命运共同体建设。

第三,完善现有地区多边机制,巩固亚太和平稳定的框架支撑。地区国家应坚持多边主义,反对单边主义,继续支持地区多边安全机制发展,推动相关机制密切协调配合,为增进相互理解与互信、扩大安全对话交流与合作发挥更大作用。

中国致力于推进地区安全机制建设,同有关国家共同发起成立上海合作组织和六方会谈,搭建香山论坛平台,建立中国-东盟执法安全合作部长级对话机制、筹建澜沧江-湄公河综合执法安全合作中心,积极支持亚洲相互协作与信任措施会议加强能力和机制建设,参与东盟主导的多边安全对话合作机制。中国在各个地区机制下提出一系列非传统安全领域合作倡议,有力推动了相关领域交流与合作。中国将承担更多国际地区安全责任,为亚太地区乃至世界提供更多公共安全产品。

第四,推动规则建设,完善亚太和平稳定的制度保障。国家之间和平相处需要秉持法治精神,遵守以《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则为基础的国际关系准则,以普遍接受、公正合理的规则为保障。国际和地区规则应由各国共商共建共享,不能由哪一个国家说了算,不能把个别国家的规则当作“国际规则”,更不能允许个别国家打着所谓“法治”的幌子侵犯别国合法权益。

中国是国际法治和地区规则秩序的坚定维护者和积极建设者。为在国际关系中践行法治精神,中国同印度、缅甸于1954年共同倡导了和平共处五项原则。中国迄今已加入几乎所有政府间国际组织和400多项国际多边条约。中国致力于维护地区海上安全和秩序,加强机制规则建设。2014年中国推动在华举行的西太平洋海军论坛年会通过《海上意外相遇规则》。中国将与东盟国家继续全面有效落实《南海各方行为宣言》,争取在协商一致基础上早日达成“南海行为准则”。此外,中国还积极参与网络空间、外空等国际新疆域规则的协商,推动制定普遍接受、公正合理的国际规则。

第五,密切军事交流合作,增强亚太和平稳定的保障力量。中国面临多元复杂的安全威胁和挑战,维护国家统一和领土完整的任务艰巨繁重。建设与中国国际地位相称、与国家安全和发展利益相适应的巩固国防和强大军队,是中国现代化建设的战略任务,也是中国实现和平发展的坚强保障。中国武装力量为国家发展提供了安全保障和战略支撑,也为维护世界和平与地区稳定作出了积极贡献。

中国武装力量是国际安全合作的倡导者、推动者和参与者,坚持和平共处五项原则,全方位开展对外军事交往,发展不结盟、不对抗、不针对第三方的军事合作关系,推动建立公平有效的集体安全机制和军事互信机制。中国坚持在相互尊重、平等互利、合作共赢的基础上,深化同各国军队的交流与合作,加强边境地区信任措施合作,推进海上安全对话与合作,参加联合国维和行动、国际反恐合作、护航和救灾行动,举行中外联演联训。

第六,妥善处理分歧矛盾,维护亚太和平稳定的良好环境。亚太地区热点问题多为历史遗留。地区国家应秉持相互尊重、求同存异、和平共处的传统,通过直接谈判与协商妥善处理、和平解决争议问题,不能让老问题损害地区发展与合作,破坏国家间互信。对于领土和海洋权益争议,应在尊重历史事实的基础上,根据公认的国际法和现代海洋法,包括《联合国海洋法公约》所确定的基本原则和法律制度,通过直接相关的主权国家间的对话谈判寻求和平解决。在有关问题解决前,各方应开展对话,寻求合作,管控好局势,防止矛盾激化升级,共同维护地区和平与稳定。

中国致力于维护南海和平稳定的基本方向不会改变,致力于同直接当事国通过友好协商谈判和平解决领土和海洋权益争议的政策主张也不会改变。中国积极推动朝核、阿富汗等地区热点问题和平解决,努力发挥负责任大国作用。

二、中国的亚太安全理念

理念是行动的先导,解决新问题需要新理念。面对蓬勃发展的区域一体化进程,冷战思维、零和博弈、武力至上的陈旧安全理念已不合时宜。新形势下,各国应与时俱进,以开放包容精神加强团结合作,创新安全理念,推动完善地区安全架构,为维护亚太安全探索出新路径。

(一)共同、综合、合作、可持续的安全观

中国国家主席习近平在2014年5月召开的亚洲相互协作与信任措施会议第四次峰会上表示,中国倡导共同、综合、合作、可持续的安全观,努力走共建、共享、共赢的亚太安全之路。

共同安全,就是要尊重和保障每一个国家安全,不能一部分国家安全而另一部分国家不安全,更不能牺牲别国安全谋求自身所谓绝对安全。要尊重并照顾各方合理安全关切。强化针对第三方的军事同盟不利于维护地区共同安全。

综合安全,就是要统筹维护传统领域和非传统领域安全。通盘考虑地区安全问题的历史经纬和现实状况,多管齐下、综合施策,协调推进地区安全治理。既着力解决当前突出的安全问题,又统筹谋划应对各类潜在安全威胁。

合作安全,就是要通过对话合作促进各国和本地区安全。通过坦诚深入的对话沟通,增进战略互信,减少相互猜疑,求同化异、和睦相处。着眼共同挑战,积极培育合作应对意识,不断扩大合作领域、创新合作方式,以合作谋和平、以合作促安全。

可持续安全,就是要发展和安全并重以实现持久安全。各方应聚焦发展主题,积极改善民生,缩小贫富差距,不断夯实安全的根基。推动共同发展和区域一体化进程,推动区域经济合作和安全合作良性互动、齐头并进,以可持续发展促进可持续安全。

这一安全观顺应全球化与和平、发展、合作、共赢的时代潮流,扎根于地区经济一体化进程,汇聚了地区国家的智慧和共识,体现了各方合作应对安全挑战的迫切需求,为亚太安全合作开辟了新的广阔前景。

(二)完善地区安全架构

维护亚太长治久安,关键在于构建面向未来、符合地区实际、满足各方需要的安全架构。

第一,未来的地区安全架构应是多层次、复合型和多样化的。地区国家历史传统、政治体制、发展水平、安全关切各有不同。亚太地区既有东盟主导的多个安全合作机制和上海合作组织、亚洲相互协作与信任措施会议等平台,也有历史形成的军事同盟。这种多样性决定了区域内短期难以形成统一的安全框架,多种机制齐头并进将是地区安全架构演进过程中的“常态”。各国都应为维护地区和平稳定发挥作用。中国推动构建亚太安全架构,不是另起炉灶,不是推倒重来,而是对现有机制的完善和升级。

第二,未来的地区安全架构建设应是地区国家的共同事业。多极化是全球大势所趋,地区安全事务应由地区国家平等参与、共同决定。地区安全架构建设事关地区国家的共同利益,需要各方积极参与,作出力所能及的贡献。亚太是大国利益集中、互动频繁的地区,大国应共同推动完善地区安全架构,更有效地应对日趋复杂的安全挑战。有关双边军事同盟应增加透明度,避免对抗性,为地区和平稳定发挥建设性作用。

第三,未来的地区安全架构应建立在共识基础之上。地区安全架构构建是长期渐进过程,不可能一蹴而就。各国应继续加强对话合作,在不断积累共识的基础上稳步推进地区安全架构建设。当前,应继续以非传统安全合作领域为重点,从易到难,由浅入深,积累互信,逐步为构建地区安全架构夯实基础。

第四,未来的地区安全架构应与地区经济架构建设协调推进。安全与发展联系紧密,相辅相成。安全架构和经济架构作为整个地区架构的主要组成部分,应统筹考虑,同步推进,相互促进。一方面,通过不断完善安全架构,确保经济发展所需要的和平稳定环境。另一方面,通过加快推进区域经济一体化,为安全架构建设提供稳固的经济社会支撑。

三、中国与地区其他主要国家的关系

(一)中美关系。2015年以来,中美关系总体保持稳定并取得新的进展。两国高层和各级别交往密切。2015年9月,习近平主席应美国总统奥巴马邀请对美国进行国事访问,并于11月出席联合国气候变化巴黎大会期间会见奥巴马总统。2016年3月底,习近平主席与奥巴马总统在华盛顿核安全峰会期间成功举行会晤。9月,二十国集团领导人杭州峰会期间,中美元首再次举行会晤,决定继续共同致力于构建中美新型大国关系。李克强总理在纽约出席联大系列高级别会议期间会见美国总统奥巴马。2016年6月,第八轮中美战略与经济对话、第七轮中美人文交流高层磋商和第二轮中美打击网络犯罪及相关事项高级别会议在北京成功举行,取得丰硕成果。两国各领域务实合作稳步推进,就气候变化、朝核、伊朗核、叙利亚、阿富汗等重大国际地区和全球性问题保持密切沟通与协调。

两国继续通过各层级双边交往及相关机制就亚太地区事务保持沟通与协调,同意努力构建双方在亚太积极互动、包容合作的关系。双方在亚太经合组织、东亚峰会、东盟地区论坛等多边框架下,就应对气候变化、反恐、海洋环境保护、打击野生动植物走私、防灾减灾等地区及全球性事务保持沟通与合作。双方在阿富汗、东帝汶等国开展的人员、农业培训三方合作项目进展顺利。

两军关系总体保持稳定发展势头。2015年以来,中美两军继续深化“重大军事行动相互通报机制”和“海空相遇安全行为准则”两大互信机制建设。2015年,两军分别在两国举行人道主义救灾联合研讨交流和实兵演练,并共同参加“可汗探索-2015”多国维和军演、“科瓦里-2015”中美澳陆军技能演练等多边演练。2016年1月,中美国防部工作会晤在北京举行。5月,中央军委联合参谋部参谋长同美军参联会主席举行视频通话。6月底至8月初,我海军153编队赴美夏威夷参加“环太平洋-2016”联合军演。7月和8月,美国海军作战部长和陆军参谋长分别访华。

中方愿继续推动中美关系持续健康稳定发展,并期待与美新一届政府共同努力,秉持不冲突不对抗、相互尊重、合作共赢的原则,拓展两国在双边、地区、全球层面各领域合作,以建设性方式管控分歧,推动中美关系在新的起点上取得更大进展,更好造福两国人民和各国人民。

(二)中俄关系。中国和俄罗斯互为最大邻国,互为战略协作伙伴和外交优先方向。多年来,在双方共同努力下,中俄关系健康稳定快速发展,不断取得新成果。两国2001年签署《中俄睦邻友好合作条约》,以法律的形式确立了世代友好的理念。2011年两国关系提升为平等信任、相互支持、共同繁荣、世代友好的全面战略协作伙伴关系,2014年中俄全面战略协作伙伴关系进入新阶段。

当前,中俄全面战略协作伙伴关系在高水平上呈现更加积极的发展势头。习近平主席同俄罗斯总统普京多次会晤。2016年6月普京总统访华期间,两国元首共同签署并发表《中华人民共和国和俄罗斯联邦联合声明》《关于加强全球战略稳定的联合声明》《关于协作推进信息网络空间发展的联合声明》。两国元首在9月二十国集团领导人杭州峰会期间举行年内第三次会晤,商定加大在涉及彼此核心利益的问题上的相互坚定支持,大力弘扬《中俄睦邻友好合作条约》确立的世代友好理念,积极开展发展战略对接和“一带一路”建设与欧亚经济联盟建设对接合作,办好中俄媒体交流年活动,密切在国际和地区事务中的协调配合,为两国关系发展注入新的强劲动力。中俄在亚太事务中保持着良好合作。双方不断加强在地区多边框架内的合作,坚定维护《联合国宪章》的宗旨、原则和公认的国际关系准则,维护二战胜利成果和国际公平正义,推动地区热点问题政治解决进程,为促进地区和平稳定和发展繁荣贡献了正能量。

中俄两军关系进一步发展。2015年,两军共同庆祝世界反法西斯战争胜利70周年,互派高层和方队参加对方庆祝活动和庆典阅兵,首次一年内举行两次海上联合演习,中方参加俄主办的国际军事比赛全部项目,在俄成功举行首届“中国军事文化周”。2016年以来,两军继续保持良性互动,首次成功举行反导计算机模拟演习,中方赴俄、哈参加国际军事比赛。双方于9月举行中俄“海上联合-2016”军事演习。两军在上海合作组织防务安全合作框架内保持密切配合。

(三)中印(度)关系。2015年以来,中印面向和平与繁荣的战略合作伙伴关系进一步深化,双方确立了构建更加紧密发展伙伴关系的目标。两国各领域交流与合作不断推进,并在国际和地区问题上保持良好沟通和协调。

两国高层互动频繁,政治互信进一步增强。2015年7月和2016年6月、9月、10月,习近平主席在乌法出席金砖国家领导人第七次会晤和出席上海合作组织塔什干峰会、二十国集团领导人杭州峰会、金砖国家领导人第八次会晤期间会见印度总理莫迪。2015年11月,李克强总理在马来西亚出席东亚合作领导人系列会议期间与莫迪总理会见。2016年5月和2015年5月,印度总统慕克吉和总理莫迪分别访华。两国各领域务实合作扎实推进,在国际事务中保持沟通和协调,在联合国、金砖国家、二十国集团和中俄印等机制中加强协调与配合,在气候变化、世贸组织多哈回合谈判、能源和粮食安全、国际金融货币体系改革和全球治理等领域携手合作,维护了中印两国和发展中国家的共同利益。

中印两军关系总体健康、稳定发展,沟通交流日益密切,务实合作广度、深度增加,迄今已举行8届防务与安全磋商和6次陆军反恐联合训练,并在人员培训、专业交流等领域开展良好合作。双方还开展边防合作,为维护中印边境地区和平与安宁发挥了积极作用。两军高层于2015年和2016年互访,就加强两军务实合作、共同维护边境地区和平稳定达成重要共识。

(四)中日关系。2015年以来,中日关系总体延续2014年底形成的改善势头。习近平主席先后在亚太经合组织(APEC)领导人非正式会议和亚非领导人会议期间应约会见日本首相安倍晋三,出席中日友好交流大会并发表重要讲话。李克强总理在2015年中日韩领导人会议和2016年亚欧首脑会议期间,应约同安倍晋三首相举行会晤。2016年9月二十国集团领导人杭州峰会期间,习近平主席再次与安倍晋三首相举行会晤。双方有序恢复政府、议会、政党等不同层级接触,举行三轮高级别政治对话,稳步推进各领域交流合作。同时,中日关系仍存在不少复杂敏感因素。围绕日方在历史、涉海等问题上的消极动向,中方敦促日方切实遵守中日四个政治文件和四点原则共识,妥善管控分歧矛盾,避免给中日关系改善进程带来干扰。

2014年年底以来,两国防务交流逐步恢复和发展。2015年11月,两国防长在东盟防长扩大会期间会晤。两国防务部门负责人在其他多边场合也多次会面。2016年,两国防务部门进行了事务级交流。此外,2015年以来,两国防务部门就建立海空联络机制举行两次专家组磋商,就机制大部分事项达成共识。

(五)中国积极发展与亚太其他国家的友好合作关系,不断增进政治互信,加强经贸联系,密切人文交往,扩大防务交流合作,共同促进亚太地区和平稳定与繁荣发展。

四、中国在地区热点问题上的立场和主张

(一)朝鲜半岛核问题。中国在半岛核问题上的立场一贯而明确,坚持实现半岛无核化,坚持维护半岛和平稳定,坚持通过对话协商解决问题。长期以来,中国为推进半岛无核化进程、维护半岛和平稳定大局、推动尽早重启六方会谈作出不懈努力。朝鲜2016年1月和9月两次核试并多次试射各种类型弹道导弹,违反安理会决议,与国际社会的期待背道而驰。中国政府对此坚决反对,并支持安理会通过相关决议,以阻遏朝鲜在核武开发的道路上越走越远。中国将继续与国际社会一道,为推进半岛无核化、实现半岛及东北亚长治久安作出不懈努力。同时,其他各方不能放弃复谈的努力,不能放弃对半岛和平稳定承担的责任。

(二)反导问题。反导问题事关全球战略稳定和大国互信。中国一贯认为,应慎重处理反导问题,搞冷战式的军事同盟、构筑全球和地区反导体系,既不利于构建战略稳定与互信,也不利于构建包容性的全球及地区安全格局。各国既要考虑本国安全利益,也要尊重别国安全关切,遵循维护全球战略稳定和各国安全不受减损的原则,共同营造和平稳定、平等互信、合作共赢的国际安全环境。

美国和韩国不顾包括中国在内有关国家的明确反对立场,宣布并推进在韩国部署“萨德”反导系统。这种做法严重破坏地区战略平衡,严重损害包括中国在内的本地区国家战略安全利益,与维护半岛和平稳定努力背道而驰。中国坚决反对美韩在韩国部署“萨德”反导系统,强烈敦促美韩停止有关进程。

(三)阿富汗问题。中国支持阿富汗和平重建,希望看到一个团结、稳定、发展、同周边国家和睦相处的阿富汗。2015年以来中国加大对阿富汗援助力度,支持阿富汗政府能力建设。2015年10月,阿富汗北部发生7.8级地震后,中国为阿富汗抗震救灾提供了支持。中国认为只有推进“阿人主导、阿人所有”的包容性和解进程,才是解决阿富汗问题的唯一正确出路。中国将继续为推进阿富汗和解进程发挥建设性作用。

(四)打击恐怖主义问题。当前,亚太地区反恐形势正经历复杂深刻变化。暴力极端思想加速蔓延,恐怖极端势力日益活跃,网络恐怖主义危害上升,暴恐活动多发频发,特别是国际恐怖组织渗透和境外恐怖作战分子回流问题日益突出,对地区安全稳定构成严重威胁。

恐怖主义是国际公害和人类公敌。中国反对一切形式的恐怖主义,主张国际社会应按照《联合国宪章》宗旨和原则以及其他公认的国际关系基本准则,广泛开展合作,形成合力。主张加强不同文明对话,采取政治、经济、外交等手段综合治理,标本兼治,消除恐怖主义滋生土壤。同时,在反恐问题上不能搞“双重标准”,不能将恐怖主义与特定的国家、民族、宗教相联系。

(五)海上问题。亚太地区海上形势总体保持稳定,维护海上和平安全和航行飞越自由是各方共同利益和共识。但非传统海上安全威胁呈上升之势,不少海域的生态环境遭到破坏,海洋自然灾害频发,溢油、危险化学品泄漏事故时有发生,海盗、偷渡、贩毒等活动频发。部分国家在传统安全领域存在误解,互信不足,也给海上安全带来风险。

中国一贯提倡平等、务实、共赢的海上安全合作,坚持以《联合国宪章》的宗旨和原则,公认的国际法和现代海洋法,包括《联合国海洋法公约》所确定的基本原则和法律制度以及和平共处五项原则为处理地区海上问题的基本准则,坚持合作应对海上传统安全威胁和非传统安全威胁。维护海上和平安全是地区国家的共同责任,符合各方的共同利益。中国致力于与各方加强合作,共同应对挑战,维护海上和平稳定。

中国对南沙群岛及其附近海域拥有无可争辩的主权。中国始终坚持通过谈判协商和平解决争议,坚持通过制定规则和建立机制管控争议,坚持通过互利合作实现共赢,坚持维护南海和平稳定及南海航行和飞越自由。中国与东盟国家就南海问题保持密切沟通对话,在全面有效落实《南海各方行为宣言》框架下深化海上务实合作,稳步推进“南海行为准则”磋商,不断取得积极进展。中国坚决反对个别国家为一己私利在本地区挑动是非。对于侵犯中国领土主权和海洋权益、蓄意挑起事端破坏南海和平稳定的挑衅行动,中国将不得不作出必要反应。任何将南海问题国际化、司法化的做法都无助于争议的解决,相反只会增加解决问题的难度,危害地区和平与稳定。

中日在东海存在钓鱼岛问题和海域划界问题。钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿是中国的固有领土,中国对钓鱼岛的主权有着充足的历史和法理依据。中日就东海有关问题保持对话,举行了多轮海洋事务高级别磋商,围绕东海海空危机管控、海上执法、油气、科考、渔业等问题进行沟通,达成多项共识。中方愿继续通过对话磋商妥善管控和解决有关问题。

中韩就海域划界有关问题广泛深入交换了意见,并于2015年12月启动海域划界谈判。

五、中国参与亚太地区主要多边机制

(一)中国-东盟合作。中国始终将东盟作为周边外交优先方向,坚定支持东盟一体化,支持共同体建设,支持东盟在区域合作中的中心地位。双方秉持相互尊重、平等相待、睦邻友好、合作共赢的原则,不断加强战略对话,增进政治互信,深化经贸、互联互通、金融、安全、海上、社会人文等各领域务实合作,推动双方关系不断取得新进展。2013年习近平主席访问东南亚期间,指出中国愿与东盟国家携手建设更为紧密的中国-东盟命运共同体。

2015年,中国-东盟防长非正式会晤首次在华召开,双方还举行了电信、经贸、交通部长会议和总检察长会议。11月,中国与东盟签署《关于修订〈中国-东盟全面经济合作框架协议〉及项下部分协议的议定书》,标志中国-东盟自贸区升级谈判全面结束。

2016年是中国-东盟建立对话关系25周年和中国-东盟教育交流年。9月7日,第19次中国-东盟领导人会议暨中国-东盟建立对话关系25周年纪念峰会在老挝万象举行。李克强总理出席会议,同东盟国家领导人共同回顾中国-东盟对话关系发展成就,总结经验和启示,并为双方关系未来发展规划方向。双方还举行了外交、经贸、质检等部长会议。双方全年举办了一系列纪念活动,包括中国-东盟建立对话关系25周年纪念招待会、第九届中国-东盟教育交流周、第二届中国-东盟省市长对话、中国-东盟建立对话关系25周年研讨会和中国-东盟周等。

(二)东盟与中日韩(10+3)合作。东盟与中日韩(10+3)合作是东亚合作的主渠道。中方推动各方加大投入,落实好《第二东亚展望小组(EAVGⅡ)报告》和《2013-2017年10+3合作工作计划》。中方积极推动清迈倡议多边化(CMIM)进程,支持进一步加强CMIM的实用性和有效性,支持10+3宏观经济研究办公室(AMRO)升级为国际组织后继续加强能力建设,维护东亚经济和金融稳定。中方还推动《区域全面经济伙伴关系协定》(RCEP)货物贸易、服务贸易和投资的市场准入模式谈判取得积极进展,并推动各方发表《RCEP领导人联合声明》。

2016年9月7日,第19次东盟与中日韩(10+3)领导人会议在老挝万象举行。李克强总理就10+3合作提出六点建议:加强金融安全合作,深化贸易投资合作,推动农业和减贫合作,促进互联互通建设,创新产业合作模式,增进社会人文交流。

2015年以来,中方积极推动10+3框架下的务实合作,举办了第七届东亚商务论坛、“了解中国”项目、第九届和第十届文化人力资源开发合作研讨班、东亚投资高层论坛、第六届粮食安全合作战略圆桌会议、第二届东亚现代农业研修班、青年科学家交流活动、百名高级汉语人才重返中国项目、第四届10+3互联互通伙伴关系国际研讨会、第三期和第四期10+3村官交流项目和第14届亚洲艺术节。

(三)中日韩合作。中日韩是东亚重要国家,是引领东亚经济一体化的主要力量,加强三国合作有利于三国自身发展,也有利于促进本地区稳定与繁荣。

2015年,随着中日、韩日双边关系的改善,中日韩合作迎来新的上升期,各领域务实合作全面推进。11月1日,第六次中日韩领导人会议在韩国首尔举行。三国领导人就三国合作和共同关心的国际和地区问题深入交换了意见,重申了对三国合作的高度重视,一致同意本着“正视历史、面向未来”的精神,妥善处理有关问题,深化在政治、经贸财金、可持续发展、人文等领域合作。会议发表《关于东北亚和平与合作的联合宣言》及农业、教育、经贸等领域的联合声明,进一步丰富了三国合作内涵,为三国合作发展指明了方向。

2015年以来,三国还举办了中日韩外交、旅游、水资源、环境、财政、经贸、农业、文化、卫生部长会议,灾害管理部长级会议,央行行长、人事部门首长会议,三方警务工作会晤、反恐磋商、林业司局长会晤、大学交流合作促进委员会会议、东北亚名人会、灾害管理桌面演练、海洋科学研讨会和中日韩合作国际论坛等活动,并举行了多轮中日韩自贸协定谈判。

(四)东亚峰会。东亚峰会是“领导人引领的战略论坛”。2015年以来,东亚峰会合作进展显著。在中方推动下,第五届东亚峰会外长会决定将《落实〈金边发展宣言〉行动计划》执行期限延长至2017年。

2016年9月8日,第11届东亚峰会在老挝万象举行。李克强总理出席会议并指出,经济发展合作与政治安全合作是驱动东亚峰会的两个“轮子”,应该相互促进、同步前进。在经济发展方面,要大力支持地区互联互通,加快推进自贸区建设,加强社会民生领域合作。在政治安全方面,要倡导共同、综合、合作、可持续的新安全观,加强非传统安全合作,探讨区域安全架构建设,妥善处理热点敏感问题。

中方积极推动东亚峰会各领域合作。2015年以来,中方主办了东亚峰会第二届新能源论坛、第二届清洁能源论坛、野生动物保护研讨会、印太海洋安全合作二轨研讨会、第五届区域安全架构研讨会以及第四次和第五次东亚峰会地震应急演练等合作项目。

(五)东盟地区论坛。东盟地区论坛是亚太地区具有重要影响力和较强包容性的官方多边安全对话与合作平台。各方坚持以建立信任措施为核心,在共识基础上稳步推动预防性外交进程,积极推动非传统安全合作不断走实。

2016年7月26日,第23届东盟地区论坛外长会在老挝万象举行。中方指出,各方应将建立信任措施贯穿于论坛进程始终,在共识基础上循序渐进探索符合地区实际的预防性外交模式。同时,应加强对话合作,增进地区国家间理解与互信,共同应对非传统安全威胁等挑战,推动论坛为促进地区和平安全作出更大贡献。

中方积极引领论坛框架下的务实合作。2015年以来,中方主办了网络安全能力建设研讨会、第三届外空安全研讨会、海上风险管控与安全合作研讨会、海上溢油应急管理与处置合作研讨会、打击犯罪分子跨境流动研讨会、绿色航运研讨会和城市应急救援研讨班等合作项目。

(六)东盟防长扩大会。东盟防长扩大会是亚太地区级别最高、规模最大的防务安全对话与合作机制,对增进各成员国防务部门和军队间互信、促进务实合作发挥了重要作用。

2015年11月4日,第三届东盟防长扩大会在马来西亚吉隆坡举行。中方指出,各方应推动建设开放、包容、透明、平等的地区安全合作架构,不断深化防务领域务实合作,妥善处理争议、管控风险,共同维护地区和平稳定。

2016年以来,中国军队在该机制框架下先后参加了在印度举行的维和与扫雷行动联合演练、在文莱和新加坡举行的海上安全与反恐联合演练。2017年至2020年,中国与泰国将担任反恐专家组共同主席国。

(七)澜沧江-湄公河合作。建立澜湄合作机制是李克强总理在2014年11月第17次中国-东盟领导人会议上提出的重要倡议,旨在通过务实合作,进一步深化澜湄六国睦邻友好,促进次区域国家经济社会发展,打造团结互助、平等协商、互惠互利、合作共赢的澜湄国家命运共同体。该机制成员包括中国、柬埔寨、老挝、缅甸、泰国、越南六国。

澜湄合作取得积极进展,截至2016年11月已举办一次领导人会议、一次外长会和三次高官会。2015年11月,首次外长会在云南景洪成功举行。六国外长共同宣布启动澜湄合作进程,并就澜湄合作未来发展方向和机制架构等达成广泛共识,提出了一批合作项目建议。

2016年3月23日,澜湄合作首次领导人会议在海南三亚举行,澜湄合作机制正式启航。六国领导人共同回顾了澜湄合作进展并展望未来方向,一致同意对接发展战略,统筹合作资源,共享发展成果,共建澜湄国家命运共同体。会议确认了“3+5”合作框架,即坚持政治安全、经济和可持续发展、社会人文三大合作支柱,确定互联互通、产能、跨境经济、水资源、农业减贫五个优先方向。会议发表了《澜湄合作首次领导人会议三亚宣言》《澜湄国家产能合作联合声明》,通过早期收获项目联合清单,涉及互联互通、水资源、卫生、减贫等多个领域。

(八)上海合作组织。2015年以来,上合组织保持健康稳定发展势头,政治、安全、经济、人文等领域合作不断取得新成果,国际地位和影响力持续上升。

2015年7月9日至10日,上合组织成员国元首理事会第15次会议在俄罗斯乌法举行,习近平主席出席会议。成员国元首签署《上海合作组织成员国元首乌法宣言》《上海合作组织成员国边防合作协定》,批准《上海合作组织至2025年发展战略》《上海合作组织成员国打击恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义2016年至2018年合作纲要》等重要文件。

2015年12月14日至15日,中方主办上合组织成员国政府首脑(总理)理事会第14次会议,李克强总理主持。会议对下一阶段各领域务实合作发展作出规划,发表《上海合作组织成员国政府首脑(总理)关于区域经济合作的声明》,批准《关于成立上合组织开发银行和发展基金(专门账户)下一步工作》等决议,见证签署《2016-2021年上合组织成员国海关合作纲要》《上合组织秘书处与联合国亚太经社会秘书处之间的谅解备忘录》。

2016年6月23日至24日,上合组织成员国元首理事会第16次会议在乌兹别克斯坦塔什干举行,习近平主席出席会议。成员国元首签署《上合组织成立十五周年塔什干宣言》,批准《〈至2025年发展战略〉2016-2020年落实行动计划》,批准签署关于印度、巴基斯坦加入上合组织义务的备忘录。

2015年以来,安全会议秘书以及外交、国防、经贸、文化、紧急救灾等各部门负责人会议机制化举行,进一步深化和拓展了各领域合作,扩大了国际影响。中国积极推动并参与上合组织各领域合作,与其他成员国、观察员国和对话伙伴的双边关系持续发展。

(九)亚洲相互协作与信任措施会议。2016年4月27日至28日,亚信第五次外长会议在北京举行。习近平主席出席开幕式并发表重要讲话。会议发表《关于通过对话促进亚洲和平、安全、稳定和可持续发展的宣言》,通过《亚信成员国2016-2018年禁毒合作行动计划》和《亚信成员国2016-2018年落实中小企业发展领域信任措施行动计划》。

中国积极落实亚信各领域信任措施,创新亚信合作平台。2015年以来,中国举办亚信青年委员会成立大会、亚信实业家委员会成立大会、首届亚信非政府论坛年会以及第三届亚信智库圆桌会议,促进落实人文、经济领域信任措施,推动成员国青年、民间组织和智库间的对话交流。

六、中国参与地区非传统安全合作

(一)救灾合作。2015年以来,中国继续积极参与和推动亚太救灾交流合作,主办第八届上合组织成员国紧急救灾部门领导人会议、中日韩第三届灾害管理桌面推演,与马来西亚联合主办东盟地区论坛第四次救灾演习,参加第三届世界减灾大会、亚洲减灾部长级对话会、上合组织成员国紧急救灾部门国际演练、亚太经合组织第九次灾害管理高官论坛、联合国国际搜索与救援咨询团亚太地震应急演练等国际会议和活动。

2015年1月、7月和2016年5月,马来西亚、缅甸、斯里兰卡遭遇特大洪涝灾害,中国第一时间向三国提供紧急救灾物资。2015年4月尼泊尔发生强震后,中国多支救援队、医疗防疫队和运输分队赴尼泊尔开展灾后援助工作,并向尼泊尔军方提供野战机动医院。

中国政府将在灾害管理领域与各方进一步完善官员互访、信息共享、人员培训、技术交流、模拟演练、科研合作、物资储备、紧急救援等机制,加强亚太区域多边和双边救灾务实合作,共同提升地区减灾救灾能力。

(二)反恐合作。2015年以来,中国先后与周边多个国家开展打击涉恐偷渡犯罪合作,成功抓获了一批在本地区活动猖獗的涉恐嫌犯和“蛇头”,重挫了“东伊运”等恐怖组织非法偷渡网络,有效抵制和防范了“东伊运”等恐怖组织对本地区的渗透。

中国分别同美国、俄罗斯、加拿大、英国、印度、巴基斯坦、韩国、印度尼西亚等国举行双边反恐磋商,并成功主办东盟地区论坛第13届反恐与打击跨国犯罪会间会,推动在打击互联网暴力恐怖音(视)频和恐怖分子跨境活动等方面加强合作。同时,中国积极参与亚太经合组织反恐工作组、“全球反恐论坛”,并与东盟共同举办打击跨国犯罪部长级会议,就反恐合作加强交流。

阿富汗、中国、巴基斯坦、塔吉克斯坦建立了“阿中巴塔”四国军队反恐合作协调机制,旨在就反恐形势研判、线索核查、情报共享、反恐能力建设、反恐联合训练、人员培训方面开展协调并提供相互支持。

(三)打击跨国犯罪合作。中国政府高度重视打击跨国犯罪,致力于全面、切实履行《联合国打击跨国有组织犯罪公约》。中国已与70个国家缔结司法协助、引渡等条约共123项,积极与美国、加拿大等国建立双边司法和执法合作机制,为与有关国家共同打击各类跨国犯罪提供了坚实的法律基础和有效的机制平台。

中国积极参与打击跨国有组织犯罪国际合作,与联合国及其他国际和区域组织保持良好合作,深入推进湄公河流域执法安全合作,并与东南亚有关国家多次开展打击跨国犯罪联合行动,有效打击了拐卖人口、电信诈骗、经济犯罪、毒品犯罪等本地区突出的犯罪。2015年10月,中国举办“安全促发展”中国-东盟执法安全合作部长级对话暨湄公河流域执法安全合作部长级会议。在第二届湄公河“平安航道”联合扫毒行动中,中国、老挝、缅甸、泰国密切合作,抓获犯罪嫌疑人万余人,破获毒品案件约9000起,缴获大量毒品和易制毒化学品。

中国愿意与有关各国加强司法和执法合作,共同打击跨国犯罪,同时希望各国进一步提升国际合作的政治意愿,努力克服法律制度的差异,积极推进在《联合国打击跨国有组织犯罪公约》框架下的合作,包括以公约为法律基础进行引渡合作,提供广泛的司法协助,并就犯罪所得的返还和分享积极开展合作。中国鼓励相关各国谈判缔结双边司法协助条约和引渡条约,推动打击跨国犯罪国际合作不断取得实实在在的成果。

(四)网络安全。当前,网络安全问题的重要性进一步前移。亚太国家高度重视网络安全问题,不断加大对网络安全的投入,积极开展对话和区域合作。中国是网络安全的坚定维护者,支持并积极参与国际社会加强网络安全的努力。中国主张网络空间应用于促进社会经济发展、国际和平与稳定和人类福祉,倡导各方在相互尊重、平等互利基础上,加强对话合作,共同构建和平、安全、开放、合作的网络空间,建立多边、民主、透明的互联网国际治理体系,认为当务之急是在联合国框架下制定各方普遍接受的网络空间国际行为准则。

2015年以来,中国继续积极推动并深入参与联合国框架下网络安全进程。中国与上海合作组织其他成员国共同向联合国大会提交“信息安全国际行为准则”更新案文。中国深入参与并推动联合国信息安全政府专家组达成最后报告,确认《联合国宪章》主权平等、不干涉内政、不使用武力等原则适用网络空间,为推动网络空间国际规则制定作出贡献。中国以建设性态度参加联合国互联网治理论坛、信息社会世界峰会高级别会议。

中国不断加强与地区国家双边网络对话与务实合作。中国与俄罗斯签署信息安全合作协定并举行新一轮网络安全磋商,举行中日韩、中韩、中欧等网络对话,与美举行打击网络犯罪及相关事项高级别联合对话等会议。

中国高度重视并积极参与东盟地区论坛以及金砖国家、上合组织等区域机制,推动地区网络安全合作平衡包容发展。积极参与金砖国家网络安全工作组及上合组织信息安全专家组,推动亚非法协设立“网络空间国际法”工作组,成功举办世界互联网大会等重要会议。

(五)海上安全合作。2015年是中国-东盟海洋合作年,海洋合作是建设“21世纪海上丝绸之路”的重点领域,中国与东盟国家在海上安全、科研环保等领域开展一系列交流合作活动。中国与泰国共同实施安达曼海科学考察,成功举行中泰海洋领域合作联委会第四次会议。与马来西亚签署《关于建立中马联合海洋研究中心的谅解备忘录》。中国与印尼海洋与气候中心和联合海洋观测站建设工作有序开展。成功举办第三届中国-东南亚国家海洋科研与环保合作论坛。

中国积极参与和推动海上安全对话合作。2015年以来,举办亚太海事局长会议、北太平洋地区海岸警备执法机构论坛“执法协作2015”多任务演练、亚太航标管理人员培训班、亚太地区大规模海上人命救助(MRO)培训及桌面演习等项目。中国继续与澳大利亚、马来西亚配合,推进马航MH370客机搜寻工作,并提供2000万澳元用于后续搜救。积极支持《亚洲地区反海盗及武装劫船合作协定》(ReCAAP)“信息分享中心”能力建设和发展,向“中心”派驻中国海警职员。2016年6月,应越南请求,中国出动舰艇及飞机协助搜救越方失事飞机和机组成员。2008年12月至2016年1月,前往亚丁湾、索马里海域执行护航任务的中国海军护航编队共完成909批6112艘中外船舶的护航任务。

(六)防扩散与裁军合作。中国一贯积极支持和参与国际军控、裁军与防扩散努力,主张全面禁止和彻底销毁核武器。中国积极推动全面落实《不扩散核武器条约》历次审议大会成果,建设性参加了《条约》第九次审议大会及五核国履行《条约》会议。中国愿与各方一道,为全面、平衡推进《条约》确立的核不扩散、核裁军、和平利用核能三大支柱作出不懈努力。

中国认为,建立东南亚无核武器区对促进本地区及世界的和平与安全具有重要意义,始终坚定支持东盟国家建立东南亚无核武器区的努力,支持《东南亚无核武器区条约》议定书早日签署并生效。中国与东盟已解决所有议定书遗留问题,中国愿早日签署议定书。中国将继续以建设性姿态参与东盟和五核国磋商进程,推动东盟和其他四核国协商解决分歧,为议定书早日签署和生效作出努力。

中国一贯主张全面禁止和彻底销毁包括化学武器在内的一切大规模杀伤性武器,反对任何人发展、保留或使用化学武器,支持《禁止化学武器公约》的宗旨、目标和禁止化学武器组织的工作,全面、忠实履行公约的各项义务。中国高度重视并支持在公约框架下开展国际交流与合作。

2015年,中国与禁化武组织联合举办亚洲地区第13届国家履约机构会议、化武援助与防护高级培训班,与联合国安理会1540委员会合办“亚太地区防扩散国家联络点培训班”。派代表出席亚太地区高级别防扩散对话会、东盟地区论坛防扩散会间会等活动。

结束语

中国人民正在为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而奋斗。在此过程中,中国将为亚太地区带来更多的合作机遇和发展红利。中国的发展是世界和平力量的增长。中国将坚定不移地走和平发展道路,坚持与邻为善、以邻为伴,坚持睦邻、安邻、富邻,坚持亲、诚、惠、容的理念,始终致力于维护和促进亚太的繁荣稳定。中国愿同地区国家一道,坚持合作共赢,扎实推进亚太安全对话合作,促进新型国际关系建设,共同开创亚太地区更加美好的发展前景。

 

Print

Events

August 30, 2017 - 4:00pm
3502 Watt Way, California

The USC U.S.-China Institute presents a talk by Douglas Fuller from Zhejiang University. Fuller's new book, "Paper Tigers, Hidden Dragons," provides an in-depth longitudinal study of China's information technology industry and policy over the last 15 years. 

October 20, 2017 - 8:00am
Los Angeles, California

Register now (early bird discount) for the upcoming USCI one-day conference on October 20, 2017!