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Language Arts Standards that can include Asian Materials

Standards adopted by the State of California where stories and other materials from Asia is appropriate.
January 1, 2007
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California State Educational Standards Relating to Asia

The California language arts standards do not identify specific Asian literary texts or styles to be studied, but the clearly such texts could be among those used to develop the skills targeted. Only selections from the grade six and seven standards are included here to demonstrate how open the standards are to the study of Asia in conjunction with the development of communication skills. The complete set of language arts standards are available from the California State Board of Education.

Language Arts

Extracts from the Introduction || Grade 6 || Grade 7

EXTRACTS FROM THE INTRODUCTION

The ability to communicate well--to read, write, listen, and speak--runs to the core of human experience. Language skills are essential tools not only because they serve as the necessary basis for further learning and career development but also because they enable the human spirit to be enriched, foster responsible citizenship, and preserve the collective memory of a nation....

Students must read a broad variety of quality texts to develop proficiency in, and derive pleasure from, the act of reading. Students must also have experience in a broad range of writing applications, from the poetic to the technical....

Reading and writing offer the power to inform and to enlighten as well as to bridge time and place. For example, interpreting and creating literary texts help students to understand the people who have lived before them and to participate in, and contribute to, a common literary heritage. Through literature, moreover, students experience the unique history of the United States in an immediate way and encounter many cultures that exist both within and beyond this nation's borders. Through reading and writing students may share perspectives on enduring questions, understand and learn how to impart essential information, and even obtain a glimpse of human motivation. Reading and writing offer incomparable experiences of shared conflict, wisdom, understanding, and beauty.

In selecting both literary and informational texts for required reading and in giving writing assignments (as well as in helping students choose their own reading and writing experiences), local governing boards, schools, and teachers should take advantage of every opportunity to link that reading and writing to other core curricula, including history, social science, mathematics, and science. By understanding and creating literary and technical writing, students explore the interrelationships of their own existence with those of others.

Students need to read and write often, particularly in their early academic careers. Reading and writing something of literary or technical substance in all disciplines, every day, both in and out of school, are the principal goals of these standards....

Speaking and listening skills have never been more important. Most Americans now talk for a living at least part of the time. The abilities to express ideas cogently and to construct valid and truthful arguments are as important to speaking well as to writing well. Honing the ability to express defensible reflections about literature will ensure comprehension and understanding. Not long ago listening and speaking occupied central places in the curriculum, but only a few schools have maintained this tradition. The time has come to restore it....

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GRADE 6

Reading || Writing || Listening and Speaking

[Note that not all grade 6 standards are included here.]

READING (Grade Six)

1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development (Grade Six)

Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.

Word Recognition (Grade Six)

1.1 Read aloud narrative and expository text fluently and accurately and with appropriate pacing, intonation, and expression.

Vocabulary and Concept Development (Grade Six)

1.2 Identify and interpret figurative language and words with multiple meanings.
1.3 Recognize the origins and meanings of frequently used foreign words in English and use these words accurately in speaking and writing.
1.4 Monitor expository text for unknown words or words with novel meanings by using word, sentence, and paragraph clues to determine meaning.
1.5 Understand and explain "shades of meaning" in related words (e.g., softly and quietly).

2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials) (Grade Six)

Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade eight, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade six, students continue to make progress toward this goal.

Structural Features of Informational Materials (Grade Six)

2.1 Identify the structural features of popular media (e.g., newspapers, magazines, online information) and use the features to obtain information.
2.2 Analyze text that uses the compare-and-contrast organizational pattern.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text

2.3 Connect and clarify main ideas by identifying their relationships to other sources and related topics.
2.4 Clarify an understanding of texts by creating outlines, logical notes, summaries, or reports.
2.5 Follow multiple-step instructions for preparing applications (e.g., for a public library card, bank savings account, sports club, league membership).

Expository Critique (Grade Six)

2.6 Determine the adequacy and appropriateness of the evidence for an author's conclusions.
2.7 Make reasonable assertions about a text through accurate, supporting citations.
2.8 Note instances of unsupported inferences, fallacious reasoning, persuasion, and propaganda in text.

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis (Grade Six)

Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They clarify the ideas and connect them to other literary works. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

Structural Features of Literature (Grade Six)

3.1 Identify the forms of fiction and describe the major characteristics of each form.

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text (Grade Six)

3.2 Analyze the effect of the qualities of the character (e.g., courage or cowardice, ambition or laziness) on the plot and the resolution of the conflict.
3.3 Analyze the influence of setting on the problem and its resolution.
3.4 Define how tone or meaning is conveyed in poetry through word choice, figurative language, sentence structure, line length, punctuation, rhythm, repetition, and rhyme.
3.5 Identify the speaker and recognize the difference between first- and third-person narration (e.g., autobiography compared with biography).
3.6 Identify and analyze features of themes conveyed through characters, actions, and images.
3.7 Explain the effects of common literary devices (e.g., symbolism, imagery, metaphor) in a variety of fictional and nonfictional texts.

Literary Criticism (Grade Six)

3.8 Critique the credibility of characterization and the degree to which a plot is contrived or realistic (e.g., compare use of fact and fantasy in historical fiction).

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WRITING (Grade Six)

1.0 Writing Strategies (Grade Six)

Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays. The writing exhibits students' awareness of the audience and purpose. Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.

Organization and Focus (Grade Six)

1.1 Choose the form of writing (e.g., personal letter, letter to the editor, review, poem, report, narrative) that best suits the intended purpose.

1.2 Create multiple-paragraph expository compositions:

1. Engage the interest of the reader and state a clear purpose.
2. Develop the topic with supporting details and precise verbs, nouns, and adjectives to paint a visual image in the mind of the reader.
3. Conclude with a detailed summary linked to the purpose of the composition.

1.3 Use a variety of effective and coherent organizational patterns, including comparison and contrast; organization by categories; and arrangement by spatial order, order of importance, or climactic order.

Research and Technology (Grade Six)

1.4 Use organizational features of electronic text (e.g., bulletin boards, databases, keyword searches, e-mail addresses) to locate information.
1.5 Compose documents with appropriate formatting by using word-processing skills and principles of design (e.g., margins, tabs, spacing, columns, page orientation).

Evaluation and Revision (Grade Six)

1.6 Revise writing to improve the organization and consistency of ideas within and between paragraphs.

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) (Grade Six)

Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

Using the writing strategies of grade six outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Write narratives:

1. Establish and develop a plot and setting and present a point of view that is appropriate to the stories.
2. Include sensory details and concrete language to develop plot and character.
3. Use a range of narrative devices (e.g., dialogue, suspense).

2.2 Write expository compositions (e.g., description, explanation, comparison and contrast, problem and solution):

1. State the thesis or purpose.
2. Explain the situation.
3. Follow an organizational pattern appropriate to the type of composition.
4. Offer persuasive evidence to validate arguments and conclusions as needed.

2.3 Write research reports:

1. Pose relevant questions with a scope narrow enough to be thoroughly covered.
2. Support the main idea or ideas with facts, details, examples, and explanations from multiple authoritative sources (e.g., speakers, periodicals, online information searches).
3. Include a bibliography.

2.4 Write responses to literature:

1. Develop an interpretation exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.
2. Organize the interpretation around several clear ideas, premises, or images.
3. Develop and justify the interpretation through sustained use of examples and textual evidence.

2.5 Write persuasive compositions:

1. State a clear position on a proposition or proposal.
2. Support the position with organized and relevant evidence.
3. Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments.

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LISTENING AND SPEAKING (Grade Six)

1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies (Grade Six)

Students deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the background and interests of the audience. They evaluate the content of oral communication.

Comprehension (Grade Six)

1.1 Relate the speaker's verbal communication (e.g., word choice, pitch, feeling, tone) to the nonverbal message (e.g., posture, gesture).
1.2 Identify the tone, mood, and emotion conveyed in the oral communication.
1.3 Restate and execute multiple-step oral instructions and directions.

Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication (Grade Six)

1.4 Select a focus, an organizational structure, and a point of view, matching the purpose, message, occasion, and vocal modulation to the audience.
1.5 Emphasize salient points to assist the listener in following the main ideas and concepts.
1.6 Support opinions with detailed evidence and with visual or media displays that use appropriate technology.
1.7 Use effective rate, volume, pitch, and tone and align nonverbal elements to sustain audience interest and attention.

Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications (Grade Six)

1.8 Analyze the use of rhetorical devices (e.g., cadence, repetitive patterns, use of onomatopoeia) for intent and effect.
1.9 Identify persuasive and propaganda techniques used in television and identify false and misleading information.

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) (Grade Six)

Students deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description). Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.

Using the speaking strategies of grade six outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Deliver narrative presentations:

1. Establish a context, plot, and point of view.
2. Include sensory details and concrete language to develop the plot and character.
3. Use a range of narrative devices (e.g., dialogue, tension, or suspense).

2.2 Deliver informative presentations:

1. Pose relevant questions sufficiently limited in scope to be completely and thoroughly answered.
2. Develop the topic with facts, details, examples, and explanations from multiple authoritative sources (e.g., speakers, periodicals, online information).

2.3 Deliver oral responses to literature:

1. Develop an interpretation exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.
2. Organize the selected interpretation around several clear ideas, premises, or images.
3. Develop and justify the selected interpretation through sustained use of examples and textual evidence.

2.4 Deliver persuasive presentations:

1. Provide a clear statement of the position.
2. Include relevant evidence.
3. Offer a logical sequence of information.
4. Engage the listener and foster acceptance of the proposition or proposal.

2.5 Deliver presentations on problems and solutions:

1. Theorize on the causes and effects of each problem and establish connections between the defined problem and at least one solution.
2. Offer persuasive evidence to validate the definition of the problem and the proposed solutions.

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GRADE 7

Reading || Writing || Listening and Speaking

READING (Grade Seven)

1.0. Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development (Grave Seven)

Students use their knowledge of word origins and word relationships, as well as historical and literary context clues, to determine the meaning of specialized vocabulary and to understand the precise meaning of grade-level-appropriate words.

Vocabulary and Concept Development (Grade Seven)

1.1 Identify idioms, analogies, metaphors, and similes in prose and poetry.
1.2 Use knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots and affixes to understand content-area vocabulary.
1.3 Clarify word meanings through the use of definition, example, restatement, or contrast.

2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials) (Grade Seven)

Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade eight, students read one million words annually on their own, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). In grade seven, students make substantial progress toward this goal.

Structural Features of Informational Materials (Grade Seven)

2.1 Understand and analyze the differences in structure and purpose between various categories of informational materials (e.g., textbooks, newspapers, instructional manuals, signs).
2.2 Locate information by using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents.
2.3 Analyze text that uses the cause-and-effect organizational pattern.

Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text (Grade Seven)

2.4 Identify and trace the development of an author's argument, point of view, or perspective in text.
2.5 Understand and explain the use of a simple mechanical device by following technical directions.

Expository Critique (Grade Seven)

2.6 Assess the adequacy, accuracy, and appropriateness of the author's evidence to support claims and assertions, noting instances of bias and stereotyping.

3.0 Literary Response and Analysis (Grade Seven)

Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They clarify the ideas and connect them to other literary works. The selections in Recommended Readings in Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

Structural Features of Literature (Grade Seven)

3.1 Articulate the expressed purposes and characteristics of different forms of prose (e.g., short story, novel, novella, essay).

Narrative Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text (Grade Seven)

3.2 Identify events that advance the plot and determine how each event explains past or present action(s) or foreshadows future action(s).
3.3 Analyze characterization as delineated through a character's thoughts, words, speech patterns, and actions; the narrator's description; and the thoughts, words, and actions of other characters.
3.4 Identify and analyze recurring themes across works (e.g., the value of bravery, loyalty, and friendship; the effects of loneliness).
3.5 Contrast points of view (e.g., first and third person, limited and omniscient, subjective and objective) in narrative text and explain how they affect the overall theme of the work.

Literary Criticism (Grade Seven)

3.6 Analyze a range of responses to a literary work and determine the extent to which the literary elements in the work shaped those responses.

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WRITING (Grade Seven)

1.0. Writing Strategies (Grade Seven)

Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays. The writing exhibits students' awareness of the audience and purpose. Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.

Organization and Focus (Grade Seven)

1.1 Create an organizational structure that balances all aspects of the composition and uses effective transitions between sentences to unify important ideas.
1.2 Support all statements and claims with anecdotes, descriptions, facts and statistics, and specific examples.
1.3 Use strategies of notetaking, outlining, and summarizing to impose structure on composition drafts.

Research and Technology (Grade Seven)

1.4 Identify topics; ask and evaluate questions; and develop ideas leading to inquiry, investigation, and research.
1.5 Give credit for both quoted and paraphrased information in a bibliography by using a consistent and sanctioned format and methodology for citations.
1.6 Create documents by using word-processing skills and publishing programs; develop simple databases and spreadsheets to manage information and prepare reports.

Evaluation and Revision (Grade Seven)

1.7 Revise writing to improve organization and word choice after checking the logic of the ideas and the precision of the vocabulary.

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) (Grade Seven)

Students write narrative, expository, persuasive, and descriptive texts of at least 500 to 700 words in each genre. The writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

Using the writing strategies of grade seven outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Write fictional or autobiographical narratives:

1. Develop a standard plot line (having a beginning, conflict, rising action, climax, and denouement) and point of view.
2. Develop complex major and minor characters and a definite setting.
3. Use a range of appropriate strategies (e.g., dialogue; suspense; naming of specific narrative action, including movement, gestures, and expressions).

2.2 Write responses to literature:

1. Develop interpretations exhibiting careful reading, understanding, and insight.
2. Organize interpretations around several clear ideas, premises, or images from the literary work.
3. Justify interpretations through sustained use of examples and textual evidence.

2.3 Write research reports:

1. Pose relevant and tightly drawn questions about the topic.
2. Convey clear and accurate perspectives on the subject.
3. Include evidence compiled through the formal research process (e.g., use of a card catalog, Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, a computer catalog, magazines, newspapers, dictionaries).
4. Document reference sources by means of footnotes and a bibliography.

2.4 Write persuasive compositions:

1. State a clear position or perspective in support of a proposition or proposal.
2. Describe the points in support of the proposition, employing well-articulated evidence.
3. Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments.

2.5 Write summaries of reading materials:

1. Include the main ideas and most significant details.
2. Use the student's own words, except for quotations.
3. Reflect underlying meaning, not just the superficial details.

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LISTENING AND SPEAKING (Grade Seven)

1.0. Listening and Speaking Strategies (Grade Seven)

Deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the background and interests of the audience. Students evaluate the content of oral communication.

Comprehension (Grade Seven)

1.1 Ask probing questions to elicit information, including evidence to support the speaker's claims and conclusions.
1.2 Determine the speaker's attitude toward the subject.
1.3 Respond to persuasive messages with questions, challenges, or affirmations.

Organization and Delivery of Oral Communication (Grade Seven)

1.4 Organize information to achieve particular purposes and to appeal to the background and interests of the audience.
1.5 Arrange supporting details, reasons, descriptions, and examples effectively and persuasively in relation to the audience.
1.6 Use speaking techniques, including voice modulation, inflection, tempo, enunciation, and eye contact, for effective presentations.

Analysis and Evaluation of Oral and Media Communications (Grave Seven)

1.7 Provide constructive feedback to speakers concerning the coherence and logic of a speech's content and delivery and its overall impact upon the listener.
1.8 Analyze the effect on the viewer of images, text, and sound in electronic journalism; identify the techniques used to achieve the effects in each instance studied.

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) (Grade Seven)

Students deliver well-organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description). Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.

Using the speaking strategies of grade seven outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Deliver narrative presentations:

1. Establish a context, standard plot line (having a beginning, conflict, rising action, climax, and denouement), and point of view.
2. Describe complex major and minor characters and a definite setting.
3. Use a range of appropriate strategies, including dialogue, suspense, and naming of specific narrative action (e.g., movement, gestures, expressions).

2.2 Deliver oral summaries of articles and books:

1. Include the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details.
2. Use the student's own words, except for material quoted from sources.
3. Convey a comprehensive understanding of sources, not just superficial details.

2.3 Deliver research presentations:

1. Pose relevant and concise questions about the topic.
2. Convey clear and accurate perspectives on the subject.
3. Include evidence generated through the formal research process (e.g., use of a card catalog, Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature, computer databases, magazines, newspapers, dictionaries).
4. Cite reference sources appropriately.

2.4 Deliver persuasive presentations:

1. State a clear position or perspective in support of an argument or proposal.
2. Describe the points in support of the argument and employ well-articulated evidence.

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Source: California State Board of Education, 1999.

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